Skip to main content

Full text of "Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga - A comparative Study"

See other formats






P. V. BAPAT, M.A., Ph.D. 

Professor of Pali, Fergiisson College, Poona 

Editor, Suttanipata (Devanagari edition) 


r m thiab Maim, 

P^ D. STUDENT in paj, 

PUNE-4II 007. (inBia) 



Prof. P. V. BAPAT, 

Fcrgusson College, 

Poona 4. 

Call no.. .&.& U&Z.M 

Date I$7...Mfc.*:...&fc.... 

Printed by 

J. C. Sarkhel, at the 

Calcutta Oriental Press Ltd. 

9, Panchanan Chose Lane. 




My Friend and Colleague 

A Great Lover of Oriental Learning 

The Late James Houghton Woods 

Professor of Philosophy, Emeritus 

Harvard University 



h BajiepHA riaBJiOBa 

AccounauHfl "ByaaH3M b MHTepHeTe" 

EymiHHCKoe npocBeTHTejibCKoe co/ipy>KecTBO 



. .'. 


I am submitting in the Tollowing pages the results of my 
Comparative Study of Upatissa's Viniuttimagga in the Chinese 
Translation with Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga. They re- 
present in the main my Dissertation submitted in 1932 to the 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. U.S.A., in partial fulfil- 
ment of the requirements for the Doctorate of Philosophy. The 
five years that have elapsed since 19-32 have been utilised in 
securing new material on the subject and considerable additions 
have been made in the light of Ibis new material. 

Just about ten days ago when I visited Sarauatha, Benares, 
I met Bhikkhu Ananda Kausalyiiyana in the Miilagandha- 
kutivihara. He spoke to me about a translation into English 
of the Viniuttimagga and immediately handed over to me the 
four fascicule of a 'draft-translation' by R. Yozai Ehara, Victor 
Pulle and G. S. Prelis (this last name is not quite legible). 
This is a cyclo-styled copy of a manuscript written in a beautiful 
hand. It contains a draft of the translation of the Viniutti- 
magga from Chapters III-XII with the omission of several 
passages which are not clear to the Translators. 

As the printing of my book had sufficiently advanced, I 
could not make full use of the translation but I must say that 
in the portion that still remained to be printed, at three or four 
places, it enabled me to revise my interpretation. On pp. 311-314 
of this translation, the translators have given the names of 
worms in a human body, in their Indian garb, but as long as 
these names cannot be identified with names actually found 
in Indian works, the restoration is only problematic. 

In the main part of this book, I have attempted to give a 
very detailed synopsis of the Viniuttimagga and have compared it 
throughout with the corresponding passages from the Yisuddhi- 
magga. To facilitate this comparison, I have tried, wherever 
possible, to construe the Chinese text in Pali. "Where the 
Chinese passages were not clear to me, I have either said so or 
indicated by a question-mark that the Pali or the English ren- 
dering given by me is merely a suggested rather than a certain 
interpretation. I have occasionally used Chinese characters 

where my rendering was uncertain or where I thought thev 

S? U^ Phl ! tV^ b6tter »*«—*»■ of the" Chine 
l«t In my Introduction to this book, I have stated the 
problem suggested by the comparative study of the two ex 
have summarised the available material on the same and 'ave' 
drawn my conclusions. 

fj, 11 ?? PriDled V38eS ° f this b00k ' 8everal «*W« h«ve un- 
for unately crept in. The difficulty of securing in India the 
nght Chinese types and the still greater difficulty of se ur ing 
comp t ors oporlv qualified to handle them, has\een respon" 
sible for the wrong use of some Chinese characters. The 
necessary corrects have, as far as possible, been indicated a 
the end in 'Corrections and Additions' 

who T ttuld1ili S J° V"*"*" 1 1° "«* *• — °< those scholars 
who would hk t0 h &e Vlmuttim . n 

the au hor will consider himself to be amply rewarded f 
serves the purpose of giving an incentive to some young" h a 
^presenting to the world the complete work! in "the near 

W mZ *l l haUk Pf0f - Vidt «^^har Bhattacharya Prof 
Bern Madhab Barua and Dr. Bimala Churn Law Z\ 
gone through the Introduction of this b ok a„T for i S 
several suggestions. I have also to thank Mr. J. C S k he , 
Manager Calcutta Oriental Press, for having taken ^2 
in the printing of this book. P 

And lastly I have to acknowledge my indebtedness to the 
University of Bombay for the substantial financial help ft has 
granted towards the cost of the publication of this book" 

November, 1937. 

P. V. Bapat 

Summary of Introduction 

Facing iii 



II 'oila-paricchedo 

III Dhutani 

IV Samadhi-paricchedo . 
V 'Kalyana-mitta-pariyesana 

VI Cariya-paricchedo^ 
Chapter VII 'Kammatthana-paricchedo 
Chapter VMEamma-dvara(?) 

Part One 
„ Two 
, , Three 
,, Four 
,, Five 
Chapter ^IX Paiica Abhinna 
Chapter ''X Pafifia-paricchedo 
Chapter XI Panca Upaya 

Part One 
Part Two 

Part. One 
Part Two 

Chapter OlII Sacca-paricchedo 




... 1 

... 4 
... 16 
... 20 
... 32 
.. 34 
.. 38 
.. 43 
-. 43 
.. 51 
.. 59 
.. 09 
.. 78 
.. 80 
. 92 
.. 95 
.. 95 
,, 108 
. 113 
. 113 
. 118 



Appendix A ... ... ... ... 129 

1. Development of a child in the womb from week 

to week. 

2. List of the names (in Chinese transliteration) of 

worms in a human body. ... ... 130 

3. Parallel passages in the Vimuttimagga and 

Petakopadesa ... ... 133 

Appendix B 


A comparative table showing the pages of the P.T.S. 
edition of the Visuddhimagga with the corres- 
ponding chapters and paragraphs of the same 
book in the H.O. Series. 

Index of Pali Words 
General Index in English 
Corrections and Additions 

... 141 
... 163 
... 167 

(Note — References are to the pages of the volumes except in the cases 
mentioned specifically otherwise.] 

A. Anguttaranikaya, P.T.S. edition. 

Abhk. Abhidharinakosa, translated into French by 

Louis de la Valee Poussin. [Reference is to 
the chapter and page of the vol. in which the 
chapter is included] . 

Abhm. Abhidhammavatara in Buddhadatta's Manuals 


AbhmV. Abhidhammattha-VibhavinI, ed. by Rev. Su- 

mangala, Colombo (1898). 

Abhs. Abhidhammatthasangaha, P.T.S. edition. 

A.M.B. Aspects of Mahayana Buddhism and its rela- 

tion to Hinayana by N. Dutt (1930). 

B. Buddhaghosa. 

Bagchi Le Canon Bouddhique en Chine. 

B.D. The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist Sanskrit 

Literature by Har Dayal. 
Chin. Dhs. Der Chinesiche Dharmasangraha von Weller 

Cm. Commentary ; added after the abbreviation of a 

work means commentary on that work. 
Cp. Cariyapitaka, P.T.S. edition. 

Corr. Corresponds to 

D. Dlghanikaya, P.T.S. edition. 
Dh. or Dhp. Dhammapada [ref. to the verse] . 

DhsA. Dhammasangani-Atthakatha i.e. Atthasalinl. 

DhsCm. Dhammasangani-Commentary i.e. AtthasalinT. 

diff. Different, differs. 

Dipa. Dlpavamsa, edited by Oldenberg. 

E. R. E. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 
expl. Explanation. 

g.a. Generally agrees, 

id. Identical. 

Eimura The Original and Developed Doctrines of Indian 

Buddhism (in charts). 

v im unuiAbbA 




N.C. or n.c. 

p. a. 










S.A. or s. a. 

S.D. or s.d. 


S.N., SN. or 




Majjhiuianikaya, P.T.S. edition. 

Maddhyamaka-karika with Vrtli (Bib. Bud- 
dhica vol. IV). 

Malalasekara, The Pali Literature of Ceylon. 

Mahavamsa, Geiger's edition. 

Mahavyutpatti, Japanese edition in Sanskrit, 
Tibetan and Chinese by Sakaki. 

Added after a figure means notes on that page. 

Nothing corresponding. 

Partly agrees. 

Photographic copy of the Mass. of Petakopadesa 
by Hardy, preserved in the State Library in 
Berlin. Burmese edition printed in the 
Zabu Meit Swe Press, Rangoon (1917). 

La legend de l'empereur Asoka. 

Patisambhida, P.T.S. edition. 

Specimen des Petakopadesa von Rudolph Fuchs, 
Berlin, 190S. 

Patthana, P.T.S. edition. 

quite different. 

roughly agrees. 

roughly corresponds. 


substantially agrees. 

slightly different. 

Siksasanvuccaya (Bib. Buddhica). 

Suttanipata, reference to the number of stanzas. 

Sphutarthabhidharmakosavyakhya [Bib. Bud- 
dhica, vol. XXI.]. 

Sasanavamsa (P .T.S. ed.). 

Taisho edition of the Vimuttimagga in the 
Chinese Tripitaka (vol. 32. pp. 399-461) 
edited by Takakusu and Watanabe. 


Vibhanga, P.T.S. edition. 

Vimuttimagga, popular Chinese edition printed 
at Bi-ling in the province of Kiang-Su (1918). 
The references are to the number of the book, 
page (the reverse side of the page being indi- 
cated by the addition of the letter 'a' to the 
number) and column. 

Vis. Visuddhimagga, edited by Henry Clark Warren 

and Prof. D. Kosambi, the references being 
to the number of chapters and paragraphs. 
[To be published in the Harvard Oriental 
Wintemitz Geschichte der Indischen Litteratur, Zvveiter 

Note : — The references to the Commentary of the Visuddhi. 
magga are to the edition of the same published in P. G. 
Mundyne Pitaka Press, 1909, unless otherwise mentioned. The 
references to the synopsis of the Vimuttimagga are indicated 
merely by the number of pages without putting any word before 
'p.' That is to say references like 'p. 5, p, 27,' indicate that 
the reference is to the synopsis of the Vimuttimagga, which 
forms the main part of this dissertation. Any remarks or com- 
ments by the writer are put in square brackets. The Roman 
figures in the marginal notes of the synopsis refer to the 
chapters of the Visuddhimagga and the following Arabic figures 
show thenumberof the paragraph. I have not adopted any Euro- 
pean or American transliteration-system of the Chinese sounds, 
but I have generally followed Nanjio in indicating the Chinese 
sound by its closest equivalent in the Indian sound-system, 
except in the case of some names which are more easily recog- 
nised in their transliterations used by previous writers. I find 
this more convenient, especially when the Chinese sound re- 
presents an originally Indian sound. The letters a, b, c used 
after the number of pages of the Taisho edition by Takakusu 
and Watanabe indicate respectively the upper middle and lower 
sections of the page. The figures after these letters indicate the 
number of columns beginning from the right. 


1. Vimuttiixiagga in its Cliinese translation Cie-t'o-tao-lun. 

2. Translated into Chinese by Seng-chie-po-lo. 

3. Similarity between the Vimuttiinagga and the Visuddhi- 
magga and four possible theories to explain the similarity. 

4. Prof. Nagai's view. 

5. Dr. llalalasekar's comment on the above and his sugges- 
tion about the solution of the problem. 

6. This question can be decided only on the merits of the 
evidence, internal and external. 

7. General account of the Vimuttimagga. 

8. Correspondences between the chapters of the Vimutti- 
magga and the Visuddhimagga. 

9. Similarity between the two books due to the common 
sources or common material upon which both the authors 
draw, such as 

(i) Pali Texts, (ii) Poranas, (iii) Pubbacariyas, (iv) 
At-thakathas, (v) Petaka. (vi) A verse ascribed to 
Sariputta by both the authors, and (vii) Some un- 
identified sources. 
10. Similes, metaphors and illustrations, 
(i) Common to both the Texts. 
(ii) Peculiar to Upatissa. 
10. Dis-similarity between the two texts. 

(A) Dis-similarity in doctrinal points. 

(i) Kammatthanas, (ii) Kasina-mandala, (iii) Exten- 
sion of the Brahmavihara-nimitta, (iv) Cariyas, (v) 
Riipas, (vi) Jhaaangas, (vii) Indriyas, (viii) Anulo- 
manana, (is) Nevasanna-nasanfiayatana-samadhi, 
(x) Asanni-samadhi. 

(B) Di-- -similarity in treatment. 

(i) Interpretation of words and expressions, 
(ii) Different treatment in whole sections, 
(iii) One goes into more details where the other 

does not go. 
(iv) TJpatissa introduces altogether new matter, which 

is not found in Buddhaghosa. 






Keference to otlier views on doctrinal points : 

(A) Those that have been mentioned by both the authors. 

(B) Those that have been referred to by one author and 
found to be exactly tallying with the views of the 
other. Light thrown on such passages by Dhamma- 
pala's comment. 

References to proper names. 

(i) Texts, (ii) Places, (iii) Personages. 
Transliterations of Indian words. 
References to a Candala. 

Style of the Vimuttimagga as we have it in its Chinese 
version and the method of the translation. 
Review of all the internal evidence and the external evid- 
ence of Dhammapala. 
18. Dhammapala. 

The author of Paramattha-manjusa, the Commentary on 
the Visuddhimagga, and the author of the Commentaries 
on the Thera-Therl-Gatha, Petavatthu, Vimanavatthu, 
Netti-pakarana, etc. is the same. Belonged to the same 
tradition and school as that of Buddhaghosa and did not 
live long after him — perhaps within two centuries— and 
therefore there is no reason to doubt his testimony. 
Abhayagiri School — Its history. 

Indian monks went to Abhayaglrivihara. 
Who was TTpatissa? Where and when did he compose 
the book? In what language did he write his book? 
What do we know about him from the Vimuttimagga? 
Discovery of a Tibetan version of a chapter of the 
Vimuttimagga. Indian origin of the Vimuttimagga. 
First, of the four theories can be accepted. 






It is nearly eighteen years since Prof. M. Nagai of the Impe- 
rial University, Tokyo, Japan, pointedly brought to the notice of 
Buddhist scholars the existence, in the Chinese Buddhist lite- Vimutti- 
rature, of a book called Cie-t'o-tao-luu, ffl Jft Ji |fe, or Vimutli- ""age* ""><! 

magga as he rendered it in Pali.' This book is the same as „. . 

• ■•»-•■! m • Chinese 

is numbered 1293 in Bunyiu Nanjio s catalogue of the Chinese transla- 

Translation of the Buddhist Tripitaka, 2 although Nanjio gives tion. 

'Vimoksha-anarga-sastra' as the Sanskrit rendering of the Chinese 

title. Nanjio further tells us that this book was composed by 

the Arhat Upatishya or Sariputra : and was translated into 

Chinese by Seng-chie-po-lo flj ftn $k II in 505 A.D. 4 in the Lian 

dynasty (A.D. 502-557). This book is divided into twelve 

chapters in twelve fasciculi or Chinese books. 

Nanjio gives us no information about Upatisya, or Upatissa 
as we may say in Pali ; but he gives us some information about 
Seng-chie-po-lo. 3 The name Seng-chie-po-lo, or, San-chie-pho-lo 
as Nanjio transliterates it, is explained in the Biography of the 

1. J.P.T.S. 1917-19, pp. 69-80. Notice of tbe same has been taken 
by subsequent writers. See Preface (p. vi) to the translation of the 
Visuddhimagga by Pe Mating Tin (1922); B. C. Law, The Life and Work 
of Buddhaghosa (1923), pp. 70-71, foot-note; also Foreword to the same 
book by Mrs. C. F. Rhys Davids; Malalasekara, Pali Literature Ceylon 
(1928)'; Vasudeo V. Gokhale, Pratitya-samutpada-sastra des TJllangha, 
(Bonn, 1930), p. 10, foot-note 2; A. P. Buddhadatta, Introduction to tho 
Saddhammapajjotika (1930-31), pp. vii-viii; Nyanatiloka, Introduction to 
his German Translation (p. 6) of the Visuddhimagga (1931); Mrs. O. F. 
Rhys Davids, A Manual of Buddhism for Advanced Students (1932), p. 31. 

2. Also ill Katalog des Pekinger Tripitaka von Prof. Alfred Fork©, 
Berlin, 1916, p. 11, No. 63; Hobogirin, Fascicule annexe, No. 1648. 

3. Nanjio perhaps so conjectures as the name 'Upatisya' was also 
used in connection with Sariputra. See M. i. 150. 

4. Bagchi (p. 418) gives 519 A.D. 

5. This information is given in the Continued Biography of Worthy 
Monks jM jgj ^ ffi ; also compare Bagchi, pp. 415-418. Przyluski, gives 
in his introduction pp. xi-xii to *La legend de l'empereur Afoka' some 
information about him. 


Buddhist worthy monks as Chun-yan jfc %H coruniunity-nourish- 
inent (Sangha-bhara) or Seng-khai fa @ (Sangha-varmau) 
cominunity-arinour. These translations help us to restore the 
name Seng-chie-po-lo to Sangha-bhara or Sangha-varman, but 
the Chinese po-lo may also be rendered as pala and so it is not 
unlikely that the name was Sangha-pala as Prof. Nagai restores 
it.' Sangha-pala was a samana from Fu-nanor Bu-nan ( ft gj ) 
Siam or Cambodia. He went to China and there translated some 
ten or eleven works. While he was in China, he became the dis- 
ciple* of an Indian monk named Gunabhadra (Kiu-na-phu- 
tho), s who himself came to China in 435 A.D. and was work- 
ing on translations till 443 A.D. We further learn from Bunyiu 
Nanjio's catalogue that this Gunabhadra was a noted scholar 
of the Mahayana school. We are also told there (pp. 415-416) 
that "he was a sramana of Central India, a Brahman by caste 
and nicknamed the Mahayana on account of being well acquaint- 
ed with the doctrine of Mahayana." On his way to China 
Gunabhadra visited Sihala-dipa (Ceylon). 4 If we look at the 
list of books translated by him, we find along with Beveral 
Mahayana works, two books of the Hinayana school, Samyukta- 
gama Sutra and Abhidharmaprakaranapada. This shows that 
Gunabhadra was also interested in Hinayana. He worked on 
translations till 443 A.D. and died in 4GS A.D. in his seventy-fifth . 
year. We learn from Nanjio that Sau-chie-pho-lo or Sangha-pala 
worked on his translations from 505-520 A.D. and died in the year 
520 while he was in his sixty-fifth year. 5 The Biography of the 
Buddhist Worthy Monks referred to above tells us that Sangha- 
pala was a very brilliant and highly precocious boy. As soon 
as he came of age to begin his study, he left the worldly life 
and specialized himself in the study, of the Abhidhamma. 
Having heard the name of the country of China as famous for 
the study of the Dhamma, he took a boat and went to that 

1. S. L<?vi (J.As. 1915, p. 26) does not think this to be correct. 

2. Bagchi, Przyluski, following P. Pelliot, consider this as impossible; 
also see B.E.F.E.O., III. p. 285. It is suggested that probably there is 
a confusion with another name Gunavrddhi. 

3 - 5fc ffl 8£ PS'i Nanjio (pp. 415-16) adds one more character lo g 

4. Taisho, 50. 344a. 18. 

5. H. Pelliot [B.E.P.E.O., III, p. 285] says 'Cest une inadvertance'. 
He gives 524 A.D. Bagchi [p. 416], Przyluski [Introd. p. XIII follow 

uiilar to 


country. We have here no information as to who brought 
Upatissa's Vimuttimagga to China. But judging from the fact 
that Sanghapala was quite young when he came to China and 
from the fact that Gunabhadra, on his way to China, visited 
Ceylon, it seems not unlikely that the work was brought to China 
>y Gunabhadra when he went to that country in 435 A.D. 

This book Vimuttimagga of Upatissa bears such a close simi- Vimutti- 
lanty, as will be seen from the synopsis of the book, with ™»eg» 
Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga that we cannot explain it as 
merely a matter of accident. Now, Buddhaghosa, who came to 
Ceylon and composed the Visuddhimagga and at least the Com- 
mentaries on the Four Nikayas, was a contemporary of 
King Mahanama who was crowned in Ceylon in or about 
413 A.D.' 

Ceylonese tradition assigns the arrival of Buddhaghosa in 
Ceylon to the year 965 2 after the death of the Buddha. Ac- 
cording to the Ceylonese tradition 5 the Buddha died in 543 B.C. 
That gives us J22_A.D. as the date of Buddhaghosa's arrival 
in Ceylon. Visuddhimagga was the first work of Buddhaghosa 
after his arrival in Ceylon. It was this book that proved his 
ability to undertake the larger work of re-translating the Sinha- 
lese Atthakathas into the Magadhi language. So it seems very 
probable that by the time Gunabhadra came to Ceylon, Buddha- 
ghosa's Visuddhimagga was also well-known. 

Now here is a problem. Upatissa's Vimuttimagga, as we 
have it now in its Chinese translation, bears a very close re- 
semblance to Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga. It cannot be a 
matter of mere coincidence. It will have to be accounted for in 
one of the other of the following ways: 

(1) That B^ddhaghosajiad Upatissa's Vimuttimagga_b_efOTey^F 0Ur 
him, that he took the frameworl' of "TJpaflisTs - Vimuttimagg/I 
and amplified it with his sholastic erudition. 

1. Mai. pp. 76, 81, 96; Max Miiller, S.B.E., Vol. X, p. 15 gives 
410-432 A.D. as the period of Mabanama's reign; Rhys Davids gives 
413 A.D., Vol. II, p. 886 of E.R.E.; Wint<jrnita (Geschichte der Indischen 
L.tteratur, Vol. II, p. 152) gives 413 A.D.; Geiger eives 458-480 A.D as 
tho date of the reign of King Mahanama, p. xxxix, *ntr. to MahSvamsa- 

2. Mai. p. 

3. Mai. p. 15. 




(2) That TJpatissa. had Buddhaghosa's book before him 
and that he abridged it by cutting down several chapters and at 
the same time introduced several modifications in consistency 
with the doctrines and views of the school to which he belonged. 

(3) That both these books go to some old common sourct 
like the Atthakathas upon which both of them draw, each treat- 
ing and interpreting the same old material in consistency with 
the doctrines and views of the school of each. 

Still another possibility is suggested. 

(4) That the main part of Upatissa's Vimuttimagga might 
have been composed before Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga, and 
that some portions might have been added to this book by 
Sangliapala who translated the book into Chinese under the 
influence of the Mahayana school. 1 

Let us see if we can find any justification for any of these 
theories or whether we can arrive at any decisive conclusion 
at all. 

Prof. M. Nagai seems to hold the view given as 4 above.' 
He identifies TJpatissa, the author of the Vimuttimagga, with 
one TJpatissa who is mentioned in the list of the great Theros 
who handed down the Vinayapitaka from the time when 
Mahinda came to Ceylon. 3 He points out that Pali Samanta- 
pasadika, as well as its Chinese translation by Sanghabhadra 
in 488 A.D., gives an anecdote of .TJpatissa and his two dis- 
ciples, Mahasumma and Mahapaduma, showing that TJpatissa 
as a teacher of the Vinaya was held in high esteem. He gives 
another anecdote which tells us how Mahapaduma cured th- 
queen, wife of King Vasabha, of an illness. This King Vasabha 
was crowned, according to Wijesinha, in 66 A.D. 4 So, Prof. 
Nagai concludes that this TJpatissa, .who is mentioned in the 
list of the Theras that handed down the Vinaya, who was held 
in great respect by the Sangha and who was a contemporary 
of King Vasabha [who was crowned in 66 A.D.], is the author 
of the Vimuttimagga, and that Buddhaghosa had probably this 
book before him when he wrote the Visuddhimagga. 

1. J.P.T.S. 1917-19, p. 79. 

2. J.P.T.S. 1917-19, pp. 71, 78, 79. 3. See Vin. v. 3. 
4. J.P.T.S. 1917-19, pp. 73, 74 j Mai. (p. 49) gives the period of 

Vasabha's reign as 65-109 A.D. approximately. 


Here, however, we do not find any other proof adduced by 
i-rof. *agai to identify him with the author of the Vimutti- 
magga. His main reliance is on the fact that there happens 
to be one TJpatissa mentioned in the list of the Theras who 
handed down the Vinaya and about whom the Samantapasadika 
in its Pah as well as Chinese version gives some anecdotes. 

Ur. Malalasekara, having considered this opinion of Prof Dr Mala., 
Naga, suggests- that there is no reason to conclude that the sokara'a 
visuddhimagga is a revised version of the Vimuttimagga, as ™ w - 
Irof. IVaga, suggests. "If we suppose," says he, "that the 
Vimuttimagga was the result of books brought by Qunabhadra 
ot Mid-Ind,a, from his travels in Ceylon and other Hlnayana 
countries the solution of the problem seems clear. Both 
authors drew their inspiration from the same source." n c 
suggests that although Buddhaghosa came to Ceylon to study 
the Sinhalese Atthakathas which were genuine, there might still 
have been some Commentaries in India, which were studied in 
hat country with traditional interpretation handed down 
through centuries. "If then it is assumed," concludes Dr 
Malalasekara, "that the Vimuttimagga found its way into China ' / 
by way of some of the schools which flourished in India at that 
time and which studied the Canon in the more or less tradi- 
tional method, it would not be difficult to conclude that the 
Visuddhimagga and the Vimuttimagga are more or less inde- 
pendent works written by men belonging to much the same 
school of thought-the Theravada." This view coincides with 
the third of the probable theories that we suggested above 

These conflicting views on the subject of the inter-relation 

between Upatissa's Vimuttimagga and Buddhaghosa's Visuddhi- 

_ magga prompted me to make a comparative study of both these 

texts and I intend in the following pages to submit the results 

ol my study on this subject. 

"We shall have to decide this question of the inter-relation be- 
tween these two texts after thoroughly investigating the evid- 
ence, internal and external, that is available to us. 

Let us first sae what internal evidence we can get from the 
comparative study of both these books which form the main 
part of this dissertation. We shall, of course, go into more 
details of the Vimuttimagga than those of the Visuddhimagga, 
as the former is much less known than the latter. 

1. Mai. pp. 86, 87. 


account of 
the Vim. 



The Viniuttimagga is divided into twelve chapters in twelve 
fasciculi or Chinese books. The divisioiTof the booksseems to 
be based on no other principle but the convenience of the size 
of each book, while the division of the chapters is mor° syste- 
matic, being based on the proper division of the subject matter. 

The first chapter is merely introductory in which Upatissa, 
the author of the Vimuttimagga, takes up the following stanza : 

Silam samddhi paflnd ca vimutti ca anuttara 
anubuddhd ivie dhammd Gotamena yasassind. 1 

[A. ii. 2; D. ii. 123]. 
as the basis for his whole work. In the introductory chapter, he 
comments on this stanza and says why he must show the Way 
to Deliverance (vimutti). In the second chapter, Upatissa gives 
the classification of Slla, conduct. In the third chapter, he 
discusses the various kinds of practices of purification (dhutas). 
In the fourth, he gives the classification of concentration 
(samddhi). In the fifth chapter called 'Search for the Best 
Friend' (Kalydiia-mitta-pariyesand) , Upatissa discusses the qua- 
lities of the best friend and tells us the ways and means to 
find out such a friend. The sixth chapter is devoted to the 
discussion of the different types of character or disposition 
(cariyd). The seventh chapter enumerates the various devices 
or helpful means (kammattlidnani) to attain the concentration 
and further shows how they can be thoroughly understood. The 
eighth chapter is the longest chapter and is divided into five parts. 
This whole chapter shows in a detailed manner how all those 
devices (or kcnrvmatthdndni) could be used to induce concentra- 
tion. The ninth chapter treats of the five miraculous powers which 
one attains as a consequence of mastery over the various practices 
of concentration. The tenth chapter gives the classification of 
insight (panfid). The eleventh chapter, divided into two parte, 
• gives a detailed treatment of the five means (updyd), insight into 
which helps one to be free from darkness of ignorance and helps 
one to cut off craving and tcf attain noble wisdom (ariyd paniia). 
The twelfth chapter, also divided into two parts, treats of pene- 
tration into the Truths by means of Purities (visuddhiyo)' and 
Insights (nana), by accomplishing which one reaches the Fruit 
of holy life culminating in Arhatship. 

1. P. 1 j Conduct, Concentration, Insight and unsurpassable Deliver- 
ance — these dhammas the Illustrious Gotama understood in succession. 


Thus it will be seen that all these chapters contain anex- 

position of the topics mentioned in the introductory stanza, 

namely, conduct (slla), concentration (samddhi), insight 

(paiind) and deliverance (vimutti). The following table shows 

the correspondence of the chapters of the Vimutti-magga with 

those of the Visuddhi-niagga : — 


I Introductory 

II Slla-pariccheda 

III Dhutdni 

IV Sarmddhi-pariccheda 1 

V Kalydrwmitta-paTiyesand 
VI Cariyd.pariccheda 
VII Kammatthdna-paricch eda 

Nothing Corresponding 

I Silaniddesa 
II Dhutanga-nid)desa 

III Kaimnatthdna-gahana- 

of the 

chapters of 
Vim. & Vis. 

VIII Kamma-dvara 

[or kamma-mukha (?)] 
Part one 

Part two 

Part three 

Pa.'t four 

Part five 
IX PaUca abhifuid 

IV Paihavi-kasina-niddesa, 
paragraphs 21-138. 

IV Pathavlkasina-niddesa, 
IV. 139— to the end of 
the chapter. 

V Sesa-kasinaniddesa, 
paragraphs 1-23. 

X Aruppaniddesa 

V Scsa-Tcasina-niddesa , 
paragraphs 24-26. 

VI Asubha-niddesa 
VII Cha-anussati-niddesa 

VIII Atiussati-kamma(thdna- 

IX Brahmavihdra-niddesa 
XI Samddhi-niddesa 

XII 1 ddhividha-niddesa 
XIII Abhinnd-niddesa 





Panca vpdyd 
Part one 

Part U 

XII Sacca-pariccheda 

Part oue 

Part two 


XIV Khandha-niddesa 
paragraphs 1-27. 
XIV Khandha-niddesa, 
| paragraphs 27-the end. 

XV Ayatana-niddesa 
L XVII Paticcasamuppdda-niddesa 
! XVI Indriya-sacca-niddesa, 
\ paragraph 13 — to the end 

I. (the part on sacca only). 

f XVIII Ditthivisuddhi-niddesa 
XIX KankhavitaTana-visudxbhi- 

XX Maggdmaggandna-dassana- 

visuddhiniddesa (in part). 

XXI Palipadd-ndnadassana-visud- 

dhi-niddesa, paragraphs 


XXI P atipadd-ndnadassana-visud- 
dhi-niddesa, paragraph 
29-to the end. 

XXII flaiiadassana-visuddhi-nid- 

XXIII Puiindbhdvand7i,isamsa-nid- 

This is only a rough correspondence between the different 
chapters of the two books, some chapters, especially the last 
three or four, of the Visuddhimagga being inextricably mixed 
up in the two parts of the twelfth chapter of the Vimutti- 

This brief resume of the contents of the two books at once 
reveals the fact that there is more than superficial agreement 
between these two books. Let us go into more details. 

It is a well-known fact that in the Visuddhimagga, B'uddha- 
ghosa very often refers to, or quotes from, older authorities which 
he specifically names, such as the Vibhanga, the Patisambhida, 
the Niddesa, the P.etaka, the Atthakathas on the Nikayas, or 
alludes to by some general name like Pali, Poranas, Pubba- 
pariyas, or Atthakathas. Sometimes, he merely says, 'So it has 
been said (vuttaw, h'etam)', without giving any indication as to 


what source he refers to. Now it is remarkable to note that there 

are many correspondences between the several passages in the two 

books that are due to these common sources of the texts from Pali, 

->r from the Poranas, Pubbacariyas or from the Atthakathas. 'We 

'ad several passages which are found in both the texts in 

deniical, or almost identical words and attention is drawn to 

hese, from time to time, in the main part of this dissertation. 

Ve shall indicate here only a few outstanding cases. 

(i) Passages from the_Pali Testa. 
Among the Tali texts, the first four Nikayas, the Vibhanga and Pal 
'atisambhidamagga are the texts on which both Upatissa and 
3uddhaghosa mostly draw. The passages, for instance, taken as 
exts by Upatissa for the exposition of the trances or anussatis 
except that of Upasama), or iddhis, or niTodha-samapatthi are 
he same as those given by Buddhaghosa ; for they all avowedly 
jo to one and the same common source. The explanation of 
icdTa-gocara in the second chapter of the Vimuttimagga (p. 11) 
is the same as that in Buddhaghosa ; for, both of them draw upon 
the Vibhanga. The explanation of iddhis (p. 8G) goes back to the 
common source of the Patisambhida. The explanation of some 
of the questions regarding NiTodha-samdgatti (p. 128) is based 
on the Culavedalla-sutta (no. 44 of the ilajpiimanikdya). The 
passage taken for the exposition of dnapdnasaii and its advan- 
tages (p. G9) are taken by both the authors from S.v. 322, and 
M. iii. 82 respectively. 

■In addition to these, there are scores of passages, too numerous 
to be mentioned here, taken from the Pali texts quoted by both 
he authors, as authorities or illustrations of a point under dis- 
ussion. In some cases Buddhaghosa merely alludes to a passage 
y giving the introductory words or by giving the name of a 
sutta, while Upatissa gives the same passage in full. For ins- 
tance, while explaining the disadvantages or dangers of worldly 
pleasures (kdmesu ddinavd) Buddhaghosa merely refers to the 
passage in the Majjhimanikaya, sutta 22, beginning with 
appassddd kdma, while Upatis." 1 jives, in full, the passage (p. 44) 
including the similes of a skeleton of bones, a piece of flesh, a 
torch of grass or reed, a dream, a fruit, or a thing begged and 
so on. In another place, Buddhaghosa merely refers, for the 
explanation of vijjd and carana, to th6 Ambattha 1 and the 

1. D. i, sutta no. 3. 






Bhayabherava 1 suttas, while Upatissa gives the full explanation 
as given in these suttas. 2 

(ii) Poranas. 

There are several passages quoted by Buddhaghosa froir 
Poranas and some of these passages are found in Upatissa'. 
Vimuttimagga in almost similar words. For instance, a num- 
ber of the verses at the end of chapter XVIII of the Visuddhi 
magga, about the interdependence of 'name' and "'form' ~ar 
found in the Vimuttimagga 3 in almost similar words, thi 
variations being noted in the detailed synopsis of the Vimutti- 
magga. Likewise, the similes of a lamp (padipa), the su: 
(suriya) and a boat (ndvd) given in the Visuddhimagga XXII 
92, 95, 9G are found in the Vimuttimagga in identical words.* 

(iii) Pubbacariyas. 

The passage explaining the arising of the different conscious- 
nesses of the eye, ear, nose, "etc. ascribed by Buddhaghosa 
in XV. 39 to Pubbacariyas (Former Teachers), is found in the 
Vimuttimagga 5 in a slightly varied but fuller form. 

Upatissa refers several passages to former teachers and some 
of these are found with slight variations in Buddhaghosa's 
Visuddhimagga although Buddhaghosa does not make mention of 
any former teachers in that connection. For instance, Upatissa 
says' (7.3a.3) that former teachers have mentioned four ways 
of cultivating dndpanasati, which he gives as ganand, anuban- 
dhand, thapand, and sallakkliand, while Buddhaghosa in VIII. 
189, gives these four ways, and in addition four more without 
Baying anything about former teachers. While treating of the 
Catudhdtuvavatthdna, Upatissa says (8.15.1) that former teacher 
have given ten' ways in which this vavatthdna can be done 
whereas Buddhaghosa speaks in XI. 86 of thirteen ways withou 
speaking of any former teachers. In his treatment of divine eai 
(dibbasota), Upatissa speaks of the way, according to some 
teachers, of developing the power of divine hearing and Bays 
that the yogdvacara begins first with giving his attention to the 
sounds of worms residing within his body." Buddhaghosa speaks 
in XIII. 3, without any mention of former teachers, of the sounds 
of these worms residing within one's body. 


1. M. i. sutta no. 4. 

3. pp. 113, 116. 

6. p. 101. 6. p. 70. 

p. 82. 

2. p. 63. 
4. p. 119. 

8. p. 88. 


(iv) Atthakathas. 

There are some passages quoted from the Atthakathas by 
Buddhaghosa. For instance, in the chapter on the Asubliani- 
■mi'.'a, he quotes a very long passage (VI. 19-22), showing in a 
detailed manner how the yogdvacara should go to a place where 
he can find the asubhanimitta. This whole passage is found 
in the Vimuttimagga 1 (6.3a.2-6.5a.3) with a slight variation 
consisting of the omission of the repeated phrases. Similarly, 
while speaking of the first four kasinas, the kasinas of the Earth, 
"Water, Fire and Wind, both the authors seem to be referring to 
the same Atthakathas ; for we find correspondence in their treat- 
ment even to the details. In the quotation given by Buddhaghosa 
IV. 22, we have a reference to the size of the niniitta, suppamat- 
tam vS saravamattam vd, as big as 'a winnowing-basket or a water- 
bowl.' Exactly the same idea, expressed in identical words, is 
found in the Vimuttimagga. 2 Similarly, in the treatment of the 
kasina of Wind, Buddhaghosa gives a quotation from the Attha- 
kathas, where we find a mention of the top of a sugar-cane, or of a 
bamboo (V.9). We find the same mention in the Vimuttimagga. 3 
The remarks by both the authors about the natural and artificial 
kasina in the case of the first four kasinas agree and we may 
explain this as due to the same common source of the 

(v) In the Visuddhimagga IV.86, Buddhaghosa gives a A quote- 
passage from the Petaka showing how the five factors of a tion from 
trance are the opposites of the five hindrances (nivaranani) . In the Petok 
the Vimuttimagga (4.17.1), we find exactly the same quotation 
ascribed by Upatissa to a book called San Tsang* H M- 

(vi) In the Visuddhimagga XIV.48, Buddhaghosa gives the 
following verse ascribed to Sariputta, where we are told of the 
size of the sensitive part {pasdda) of the eye : 

t ena cakkhappasddena rilpdni manupassati 
parittam sukhumum etam ukasirasamtipamam. 
Now in the Vimuttimagga 5 (10.2.1), we have the same verse 
in almost identical words. Instead of ukdsira, Upatissa, as far 
as can be seen from this Chinese translation, uses the word ukd 

1- P- 60. 2. p. 44 3. p. 58. 

4. p. 49; the same passage is quoted in DhsCm. p. 165 and Dhamma-' 
pala in his commentary on the Visuddhimagga refers to Petaka at least 
three times (pp. 153, 194, 874) almost in a similar context.' 

5. p. 96. 

A common 

fied source. 



(vii) Over and above these cases, where the common source 
of the parallel passages can be definitely ascertained, there are 
others where the similarity is distinctly seen, although the 
common source may not be known. 1 For instance, in the chapter 
on the 'Search for the Best Friend' (Kalyd7ia-mitta-pariyesana), 
Upatissa mentions 2 the seven qualities of the best friend which 
are identical with those given by Buddhaghosa in the verse 
III. 61. Likewise, the comment on the word sikkhati, as given 
by Upatissa, 3 is word for word the same as is found in the 
Visuddhimagga VIII. 173. So also, the comment on the word 
anubandhand in the Visuddhimagga VIII. 196 is the same as 
Upatissa's comment on the same word.* Upatissa also gives a 
passage 5 which corresponds to Buddhaghosa's four nayas, 
ekattanaya, nanattanaya, abyaparcmaya, evamdlumvmatdnaya 
given by Buddhaghosa in XVII.309-313 and XX.102. 

We also find several similes and metaphors which are com- 
mon to both of our tests, either because they are taken from a 
common source or because one has borrowed from the other. 
The parable of a mountain-cow (gam pabbateyyd) in the 
Visuddhimagga IV. 130, taken from an older source 
(A. iv. 418-19), is given by Upatissa.' The simile of a young 
calf (dhenupaka vaccha) given by Buddhaghosa in IV. 174 is 
also given by Upatissa. 7 The simile of a saw 1 (kakaca) used for 
cutting wood, given by Buddhaghosa in VIII. 201-203 to illus- 
trate how attention is to be directed to the wind of breath as it 
comes in and goes out, is found in the Vimuttimagga." The 
simile of the same as given in the Kakacupama sutta (No. 21 of 
Majjhimanikaya) is given by Upatissa in another place* to 
illustrate how one should see the disadvantages in .ill-will. 
This corresponds to Buddhaghosa's mention of the same in 
IX:i5. The similes of a drum and sound" (B.XVIII.6.), a lame 
man and a blind man" (B. XVIII. 35.), flash of lightning 
and a city of Gandharvas 12 (B. XX. 104.) are found in the Vimutti- 
magga. The Mahabhutas are compared by Upatissa to three sticks 
reclining upon one another." This corresponds to Buddhaghosa's 
simile in another contest where he shows the inter-dependence of 

1. Probably it may be some acariyamata. 

2. p. 32. 3. p. 70. 4. p. 70. 
5. p. 115. 6. p. 51. 

7. p. 52; also cf. Pe(., Bur. ed. p. 131 : vaccho khirapako va mataram. 

8. p. 70. 9. p. 78. 10. p. 113. 
11. p. 113. 12. p. 116. 13. p. 96. 


noma and rilpa thus : yatlid hi dvisu valakaldpisu aniiarrmnaiii 
nissaya f.liapitasu in XVIII. 32. Upatissa in 11.14.10 gives a simile 
'like a man who takes water from some one place in the ocean, 
tastes it with his tongue and know? all the water in, the ocean 
to be salty'. 1 This corresponds to Buddhaghosa's eka-jala- 
bindumhi sakala-samudda-jalarasam viya, 'as the taste of all 
water in the ocean is in one drop of water from it' (XVI. 60), 
used in a different context. Even the illustration of devdnara 
devdyatanam iva, given by Buddhaghosa in X.24.31 while ex- 
plaining the meaning of the word dyatana, is found in the 
Vimuttimagga. 3 The similes of the continuous flame 3 of a 
lamp, a moth 4 falling into a lamp, or the flame of a lamp' in a 
quiet place, 5 which are very common in Buddhist literature, 
are given by both Buddhaghosa and Upatissa. So also 
Upatissa, like Buddhaghosa, gives the similes of the strik- 
ing of a bell and the fluttering of wings by a bird to illustrate 
vitakka, and the similes of the merging sound and the wheeling 
round of a bird to illustrate vicdra.* 

There are several other similes which are peculiar to 
Upatissa. He has given some protracted similes. For instance, 
there is a beautiful long-protracted simile of a king who is 
asleep,' who hears the sound of a knock on the door, wakes up, 
instructs a servant to have the door opened, sees his gardener 
coming with a mango-fruit, eats the mango-fruit which the 
queen cuts and gives to him, gives his judgment about the fruit 
and goes back to sleep again. This simile is given to illustrate 
the whole process of thought when an object is seen through the 
sense-aperture of the eye. 8 Another protracted simile given by 
Upatissa to illustrate the inter-relation of the different factors 
of Dependent Origination (paticca-samuppdJa), and to show that 
the round of birth and death is without a beginning and without 
an end, is that of a seed and the rice-plant.' 

Upatissa illustrates the distinction between upacdra and 
appana by some beautiful similes. Upacdra is like a boat on 
water full of waves ; appana like a boat on water where there 
is no wind. Upacdra is like a young boy, appana, like a strong 

1. p. not quoted. 2. p. 55. 3. p. 114. 4. p. 115. 

5. Vis. XIV. 139, 'nivate dipacclnam fhiti viya cetaso fhiti' ; cf. 
Atthasalini, p. 119. 

6. p. 46. 

7. pp. 101-02; for a closely allied simile, see Atthasalini pp. 279-80, 
§ 573. 

8. p. 102. 9. p. 104. 


man. Upacdra is like a blind man, appand like one who is not 
blind. Upacdra is like a man who recites suttas only after a 
long time and so forgets ; appand is like one who recites suttas 
constantly and so does not forget (4. 7. 8. -4. 7a. 4). This simile 
of the recitation of the suttas seems to be a favourite one with 
Upatissa. He compares vitakka to a man who recites suttas in 
his mind, while vicdra is compared to one who meditates over 
the meaning of a sutta 1 (4. 12a. 10-4. 13.1). 

The distinction between gotrablxu-ndna and maggdiidna is 
illustrated in this way. The former is like a man who has only 
one foot outside the threshold of a burning city, while the latter 
is like one who has put both his feet outside the city. 2 There 
is a most apt simile given by Upatissa to illustrate the 
cultivation of equanimity (upekkha) after the cultivation of 
friendliness (metta), compassion (harund) and rejoicing or delight 
(muditd). Just as a man when he sees his relative coming back, 
after a long absence in a far-off country, pays attention to him 
for some time, but, later on, as time passes by, he becomes in- 
different to him'. 3 There is another very appropriate simile to 
illustrate the behaviour of a yogdvacara with his master. 'Like 
a newly married bride going to wait upon her father-in-law and 
mother-in-law, the yogdvacara should have a sense of conscien- 
tiousness (hiri) and fear (ottappa), and should receive instruc- 
tions from his master." Upatissa shows the appropriateness of 
the order of the Four Noble Truths by illustrating them with 
the simile of a physician who first sees the symptoms of a 
disease, hears the cause of it and then seeing the possibility of 
a cure, prescribes a suitable medicine for the cure of the disease. 5 
The impurities of the body oozing out through its nine openings 
are compared to wine placed in a leaking pot* (8.22a.l). 
The simile of an iron ball red-hot with fire, that could 
be moulded into whatever thing one likes, is given by Upa- 
tissa (9.Ga.5). With this may be contrasted the similes of 
a goldsmith and of a potter preparing, respectively, whatever 
ornaments and pots they like from the red-hot gold and well- 
kneaded earth (B.XII.2). To illustrate the unknown destiny of 
an Arhat, Upatissa gives the simile of red-hot iron beaten and 
giving out sparks. When it is dipped into water we do not 
know where the sparks disappear;' so we do not know anything 

1. r 47. 2. p. 119. 
6. p. 86; cf. p. 75. 

3. p. 81. 4. p. 33. 5. p. 110. 

7. p. 120; also cf. Sn. 1074, 1076. 

L.VlliUI/L'UilUrs XXIX 

about the destiny of au Arhat. 1 The simile of one who is afraid 
of a poisonous serpent is given by Upatissa in 5.17.7-8. One 
who wants to be free from upadanakkhandhas is compared to a 
man who wants to get rid of a poisonous serpent whom he has 
grasped unawares.' The simile of an elephant and a goad is 
often given by Upatissa. For instance, he says, one must apply 
oneself to a samddhi-nimitta for controlling oneself, just as a 
goad is applied to an elephant for controlling him. 3 To express 
harmfulness of a thing, Upatissa gives the similes of riding an 
elephant without a goad, 4 or of a man who, having a natural 
excess of the humor of phlegm, eats fatty things 5 or one who, 
having a natural excess of bile in his humors, takes hot drinks.* 
Upatissa gives another very beautiful and most appropriate 
simile. The four Great Elements (maltabhiitani) are compared 
to three sticks reclining upon one another and the Derived Ele- 
ments' (upddd rupdni) are compared to the shadows of the three 
sticks. Lake the three sticks, the Great Elements, depend upon 
one another, but the Derived Elements, although they are derived 
from the Great Elements, do not depend upon one another, 
like the shadows of the sticks. 7 

There are also some similes which Upatissa gives from some 
older sources. For instance, to illustrate the first four trances' 
of the realm of form, Upatissa gives the similes from M.i.276, 
277-78. Buddhaghosa does not give these similes. Similarly the 
similes of a cart and an army (p. 48) are quite usual similes in 
Buddhist literature." Upatissa uses both of them in 4.16.8-10. 
"Just as, because of the different parts of the cart 10 we can use the 
word cart, or because of the division of the army 11 we can say an 
army, so this trance (jhdna) is so called because of the different 
factors 12 (angdni)." Upatissa also gives very appropriate similes 
to illustrate the meaning of the different sankh&ras. Touch 
(pJiassa) is like the light of the sun that strikes the wall, equani- 
mity (upehkhd) like a man holding a scale of balance, false 
view (ditthi) like a blind man touching and feeling an elephant, 
sh'amelessness like a candala." At another place, 'not to delight 

1. p. 120. 

p. iZU. 

3. p. 115; also cf. p. 32, 41 

5. p. 41. 



6. p 

p. 118; also see p. 115. 
p. 41. 

p. 96. 8. pp. 47, 79, 52-53. 

Miln. pp. 26-28; Abhidharniakos'a VIII. pp. 7-8. 
Cf. B. XVIII. 28. 11. Cf. B. IV. p. 107. 

p. 48. 13. p. 99. 

Points of 

in good things' is illustrated by the simile of a cangldla who 
cares not for s princely throne. 1 

Having noticed the points of similarity between our two 
texts, let us now proceed to examine the points of dis-similarity. 
The differences between the two texts are of two kinds: (A) in 
the doctrinal points and (B) in the method of treatment. 

(A) At the outset it may be borne in mind that Upatissa 
does not at all differ from Buddhaghosa on any fundamental 
doctrines of Buddhism. This clearly shows that both of them 
accept the same Theravada tradition. It is only on compara- 
tively minor points that they differ. 

(i) For instance, Upatissa gives thirty-eight kammatthanas 
as the principal ones and he mentions two others as only 
secondary. 5 His whole treatment of the kammatthanas is based 
on the acceptance of thirty-eight kammatthanas, mentioning 
occasionally the other two. In the detailed treatment of these 
kammatthanas, however, he has included these two also. This 
subject is discussed in a note in the main body of this disserta- 
tion 3 and it will be seen from it that this classification of Upatissa 
is based upon an older classification as seen in M.ii. 14-15, and 
Ps. i. 6. Netti and Abhidharmakosa of Vasubandhu (VIII. 36a) 
also give the same kasinas as are given here. 

(ii) Upatissa speaks of the kadna-mandala as a circular, 
triangular or quadrilateral,* although he adds at the same time 
that former teachers considered a circular maiidala as the best. 
Buddhaghosa does not make any mention of the triangular or 
quadrilateral kasina. 

(iii) In connection with the nimitta of the Brahmaviharas, 
Upatissa speaks of the extension of the nimitta of the Brahma- 
viharas as well as of the ten kasinas. 5 Buddhaghosa is definitely 
opposed to this view. He speaks against this view and it is 
quite obvious that he has in mind some definite theorists who 
held this view. Can it not be that Buddhaghosa has this passage 
of Upatissa or this view of the school of Upatissa in mind? 

(iv) Upatissa speaks of and accepts fourteen cariyas," or 
types of disposition, while Buddhaghosa, although he is aware 

1. p. 15; also cf. Sik. 129-30, 150. 

2. p. 38. 

4. pp. 43-44. 

6. p. 34. 

3. pp. 38-39 note. 
5. p. 39. 


of this fourteen-fold classification, accepts only six cariyas. 
He definitely rejects the fourteen-fold classification (B. III. 74). 
He devotes a lot of space to the discussion of these cariyas and 
we shall have an occasion to refer to them again. 1 

(v) Upatissa gives thirty kinds of rupas, 2 four being the 
mahabhutas, the great elements, and twenty-six upadariipas, 
derived-matter. Buddhaghosa, gives only twenty-eight (XIV. 3G). 
He is aware of some other kinds of riipas, which are 
added by some to his list. He discusses those riipas and rejects 
all of them. In this connection, among other rupas, he mentions 
jatiriipa and adds: 'according to some (ekaccdnam materia, 
XIV. 71), middharupa' . Upatissa seems to accept these two 
rupas. He has a very consistent view about this middha-rupa, 
the material form or quality of sloth. He refers to middha- 
rupa on three other occasions. In 4.15.4-4.15a.l and in 
10.3a.2-3, Upatissa says that middlia-rupa is of three kinds— that 
which is produced by weather (utuja), produced from mind 
{cittaja), and produced from food (dhdraja). Upatissa says that 
it is the cittaja-middha that is a hindrance (nivarana) and not 
the other two; for, they can be even in an Arhat. He gives a 
quotation 5 from Anuruddha to explain that cittaja middha is to 
be given up at the time of Arhatship, while the other two can 
be given up later. In 12,13.10, Upatissa mentions only thina 
(mental languor) and uddhacca (restlessness) as things that are 
given up at the time of entrance into the Path of Arhatship,* 
while Buddhaghosa mentions thlna-middlia 5 and udliacca in 
the same connection (XXII. 71). 

This view of Upatissa is supported by the author of the 
Miliuda-panha. In this book, we find the mention' of ten kinds 
of physical states (kdydnugatd dliamma) over which an Arhat 
has no control. Among these ten, we find middJia. 

(vi) Buddhaghosa speaks of the five angas or factors of the 
first trance, three of the second, and two each of the third and 
fourth (IV.106,139,153,183). The factors of each trance are as 
follows : — 

1st trance, 5 angas : vitakka, vicdra, piti, sukha and ekaggata. 
2nd trance, 3 angas : piti, suklia and ekaggata. 

3rd trance, 2 angas : su kha and ekaggata. 

4th trance, 2 angas : upekkhd and ekaggata. 

1. pp. xxxvii, ; 
6. Also see Dc 

:i. 2. 

p. 1027. 

p. 9c 

3. p. 48. 4. p. 123. 
6. Trenckner's ed. p. 253. 


Upatissa, in addition to this kind of classification, gives 

another classification 1 as follows : — 

1st trance, 5 angas : vitakka, vicara, piti, sukha and ekaggatd. 

2nd trance, 4 angas : sampasdda, plti, sukha and ekaggata 

3rd trance, 5 angas: upekkhd. sati, sampajaniia, sukha and 

4th trance, 3 angas : upekkhd, sati and ekaggata. 

This kind of classification is also found in Vibhanga 257-61. 
Vasubandhu's Abhidharmakosa also (VIII. 7-8) gives this classi- 
fication with a slight variation in the angas of the last trance, 
where it gives four instead of three. 

(vii) Upatissa mentions only three indriyas, 2 which corres- 
pond to the lokuttara-indriyas, the last three of the twenty-two 
enumerated by Buddhaghosa in XVI. 1. He does not even give 
any section on Indriyas as Buddhaghosa gives in XVI. 1-12. 

(viii) While explaining anuloma-ndna, Upatissa explains 
it as equivalent to thirty-seven dhanimas 3 which are the same 
as the thirty-seven factors of enlightenment (bodhi-pakkhiya- 
dhammd). Buddhaghosa, however, considers these factors of 
enlightenment as something higher than anuloma-ndna, which 
he puts between the eight yjpassanafianas and these thirty-seven 
factors of enlightenment.* 

(ix) According to Upatissa, neeasahnd-nasanndyatana does 
not become 5 a paccaya of vipassand (3. 7a. 10-3. 8.1), while accord- 
ing to Buddhaghosa, all kammapthdnas do become (III. 120). 6 

(x) Upatissa mentions asannisarnddhi' as one not attained 
either by savakas or by the Buddha. Buddhaghosa does not 
make any such mention. 

(B) Let us now proceed to the other kind of difference, the 
difference, in treatment or in the method of handling a parti- 
cular point. There are many such cases where these differences 
occur and they have been pointed out in various places in the 
main body of this dissertation. Here we shall mention only a 
few cases of outstanding importance. 

(i) It has been observed that Upatissa gives an interpretation 
of some terms or expressions, different from that given by 

1. pp. 51-53. 2. p. 122. 

4. XXI 130. 

6. Also. cf. B. XVII. 75; Abhm. p. 91. verse 835. 

7. p. 30. 

3. p. 119. 
5. p. 40. 

Buddhaghosa, although both of them use one and the same 
term or expression. For instance, if we compare Upatissa's 
interpretation of dhuta and dhutavdcla' with that given by 
Buddhaghosa in II. 81-82, we find Upatissa's interpretation is 
quite different. It is simpler and more natural than that of 
Buddhaghosa. Similarly, take the four kinds of paribhogas. 2 
Upatissa's interpretation differs from that of Buddhaghosa in 
1.125-27. In the same way, take the word I'dtimokkha .' Upa- 
tissa's interpretation is almost identical with the interpretation 
of the same word in V : bhauga 246, and is quite different, from 
the artificial interpretation of Buddhaghosa in 1.43. The same 
is the case with Upatissa's comment on vimocayam citlain.' 
Upatissa's comment is quite different and more natural than 
that of Buddhaghosa (VIII. 233) which is very artificial and 
, highly scholastic. Upatissa's comment on the words Bhagavd, 
bhikkhu, upekkhd, saccdni,' on the passage taken for the ex- 
position of sildnussati* and on the words such as riipa, jivhd, 
kdya, dyatana' is entirely devoid of Buddhaghosa's artificiality 
and scholasticism. While treating of upasamdnussati,* Upatissa 
does not take even the main textual passage taken by Buddha- 
ghosa for his exposition. 

(ii) Upatissa's treatment of the sections 9 on vedand, saiind, 
sankhdra and viiiiidna is different from that of Buddhaghosa. 
His exposition of the artificial dloka-kasina" is different from 
that of Buddhaghosa in V.21. While explaining the word 
loka-vidiu, Upatissa refers to only two lokas, satta-loka and 
sankhdra-loka." He does not speak of okdsa-loka over which 
Buddhaghosa spends some paragraphs. The whole sections 
on kdyagatd-sati and upo-saw.dnussatL 12 are treated by Buddha- 
ghosa in a manner quite different from that of Upatissa. 
The latter does not go into the detailed explanation 
of the thirty-two parts of the body as the former 
does. But, on the other hand, Upatissa gives a long list 
of the names of worms that reside in a human body. The 
names used seem to be all transliterations of Indian names, 
one of which may be restored as inundlamiiklia (San. mrndla- 
mukha). 13 Upatissa also goes into the details of the develop- 

1. pp. 24-25. 2. p. 13. 3. p. 11. 4. p. 71. 

5. pp. 63, 11, 52, 109. 6. p. 67. 7. pp. 99, 100. 

8. p. 77. 9. pp. 97-100. 10. p. 58. 

11. p. 63. 12. pp. 75 ff., 77 ff. 
13. See p. 76 and Appendix A 2. 

nient of the foetus week by. week. A comparison with Atharva- 
veda as well as with some of the old Indian medical works 
like Vagbhat's Astanga-hrdaya, 1 and Caraka 2 and Susruta* 
shows that the names of the worms given by Upatissa are 
different from those mentioned in these works. Susruta speaks 
of the development of foetus month by month and not week by 
week. 4 Upatissa's exposition of the Law of Dependent Origina- 
tion is quite simple and is illustrated by the simile of the 
rice-seed and rice-plant. 5 

(iii) We find from the comparison of these two texts that 
where Upatissa is brief, Buddhaghosa is prolix and where 
Upatissa goes into details Buddhaghosa does not. For instance, 
while explaining the word atthana, Upatissa mentions* only 
six atthanas which correspond to Buddhaghosa's palibodhas 
that are given by him as ten (III. 109). We have already men- 
tioned above 7 another case where Buddhaghosa gives eight ways 
of cultivating mindfulness of breath (VIII.189) while Upatissa 
gives only four. 8 Upatissa mentions only four advantages of 
cultivating samddhi,* while Buddhaghosa mentions five 
(XI.120-24). We have also referred to (p. xxiv) another case 
where Upatissa mentions only ten ways, given by former teachers, 
of catudhdtuvavatthdna, 1 ' while Buddhaghosa gives thirteen. 
Upatissa gives only three divisions of sila: duvidha, tividlia, ' 
catubbidha (pp. 7-14). He does not speak of the paiicavidha 
class which Buddhaghosa gives. Upatissa does not speak of 
the five kinds mastery (vasiyo, p. 51) that Buddhaghosa gives 
in IV. 151. 

On the other hand Upatissa gives a detailed explanation of 
various kinds of viveka 11 and the five, kinds of vimutli," while 
Buddhaghosa does not. Upatissa gives sis kinds of piti, 13 while 
Buddhaghosa gives only five (IV.94-100). Upatissa gives five 
kinds of sukha. 1 ' whereas Buddhaghosa does not speak of any- 

1. Nidanasthana, 14. 42-56. 

2. Vimanasthana, 7. 9-13. 

3. 54th adhyaya : Eug. Transl. by K. I. Bhishagratna, III. pp. 338-9. 

4. Third adhyaya-; Eng. Transl. by Bhishagratna, ii, p. 137 ff. 
%• P- 104 - 6. p. 32. 

*• P- XX1V - 8. p. 70. 

9 - P- 27 - 10. p. 82. 

11. p. 46. 12 . p . i. 

13. pp. 47. u p i7 


thing of the kind. In the classification of sila, samadhi and 
pannd, Upatissa gives several divisions which are not given by 
Buddhaghosa and many of them are based upon some older texts 
like Vibhanga. Upatissa gives a detailed list of the special 
distinctions 1 of the Buddha while Buddhaghosa merely refers to 
them (IX. 124). Upatissa gives a detailed statement of the 
disadvantages of ill-will, 2 while Buddhaghosa only alludes to 
some suttas (IX. 2). 

(iv) Upatissa sometimes introduces new matter which we 
do not find in the corresponding portion of Buddhaghosa. For 
instance, Upatissa mentions several gunas 3 of each trance, 
twenty-five of the first, twenty-three of the second, twenty-two 
of the third and fourth trances and of the four formless (arilpava- 
cara) samadhis. Buddhaghosa does not say anything of the 
kind. Similarly, as a reward for each of these trances and 
samadhis, Upatissa names the planes of the different kinds of 
gods (together with their life-periods)* where the yogdvacara is 
born. It is interesting to note that the life-periods assigned to 
these different gods by Upatissa do not agree in all cases 
with those given in Vibhanga (424-26), or Abhidhammattha- 
sangaha (chap. V. para. 6). 5 The following comparative list 
will be interesting : — 

According to According to 

Upatissa Abhs. & Vbh. 

Realm of the first trance 

Brahma-purisajja J kappa J kappa 

Bralima-purohitd h ,, i „ 

Mahd-brulvma 1 \ 

Realm of the second trance 

Parittabha 2 kappas 2 kappas 

Appamanabhd '4 ,, 4 

Abhassard 8 ,, 8 

Realm of the third trance 

Paritta-sublid 1G ,, 16 . 

Appamdiiasubhd 32 ,, 32 

Subhalcinhd 64 64 


1. pp. 65-66. 

2. p. 78. 

5. Nor do they 
his Abhidharmakosa, 

3. pp. 47-56. 4. pp. 50-56. 

with the life-periods given by Vasubandhu in 


According to 

According to 



& Vbh. 

Realm of the fourth trance 

Vehapphald 1 
Asannasattd j 

50 kappas 




Aviha 10,000 kaphas 

1,000 kappas 

Atappd 20,000 




Sudassd 40,000 




Sudassl 80,000 



Akanittha 100,000 




Realm of the formless trances 

Akdsdnancdyatantipagd 2,000 



Viniidnancayatamlpagd 4,000 




Akincanndyatariiipaga 6,000 









While explaining the anussatis, Upatissa explains or 
defines the subject of each of the anussatis. In his explanation 
of the word Dhamma in Dhammdnussati , Upatissa gives a very 
interesting comment. 1 He explains the word Dhamma as 
Nibbdna and the Way to Nibbdna. His explanation of Nibbana 
is the cessation of all activities (sankkdra), abandoment of all 
defilements, cessation of craving, dispassionateness and calmness. 
The way to Nibbdna, he explains, in terms of those dhammas 
which are known as the Thirty-seven Factors of Enlightenment 
(bodhipakkhiya-dhamrrui). 2 Compare with this Buddhaghosa's 
idea of Nibbdna in XVI.64-74, 

Having noticed the points of similarity and dissimilarity, 
let us further see whether there is any direct or veiled reference 
in one book to the other, or whether there is any other evidence 
to make one believe in the probability of the author of one book 
having known the other. 

It has been noted that Buddhaghosa, in his Visuddhimagga, 
often refers to the views of other philosophical systems or schools 
or traditions — to the yiews of the Sankhya 3 and Vaifesika* 

1. p. 66. 2. p 

3. XVI. 85, 91. 

4. XVI. 91, XVII. 117. 


systems, of those whom he calls Believers in God or (Supreme) 
Controller, 1 of the Jainas, 2 as well as to the views of other 
schools or traditions (in Buddhism). 3 He does not mention them 
by their specific name but uses some word that is peculilarly 
characteristic of each of them or simply uses words like 'eke, 
ekacce, keci, aiiiie, apare, or yo pana vadeyya, etc' leaving it 
to the reader to imagine whom the cap fits. For our purpose, 
we are to confine ourselves to Buddhaghosa's references to other 
schools within the pale of Buddhism. Upatissa also often gives 
the views of other schools, 4 introducing them simply with a re- 
mark such as 'and it is said', 'further it is said.' Such references 
to the views of other schools made by Buddhaghosa and Upatissa 
in their books, we shall classify in the following way : 

(A) Those views that have been referred to by Buddhaghosa 
as well as by Upatissa. 

(B) Those views that have been ascribed to 'some' by one 
author and found to be exactly tallying with the views 
held by the other. 

It is well-known that Buddhaghosa belonged to the school 
of the Theravadins and accepted the tradition of the Mahavihara 
school in Ceylon. In his prefatory remarks to the Visuddhi- 
magga, Buddhaghosa definitely says that he would give the ex- 
position of the Path of Purity, according to the traditional 
interpretation of those who belong to the Mahavihara (1.4). 

(A) (i) In the Visuddhimagga, 1.19, while giving the 
various interpretations of the word sila, Buddhaghosa says that 
there are others who interpret the word sila, also in the sense of 
'head' (sira). or in the sense of 'cool' (sitala). These same in- 
terpretations as well as a few others are given by Upatissa in 
1.6.3-10. 5 

(ii) In the Visuddhimagga III. 78, Buddhaghosa says that 
there are others who would make three other cariyas — by way 
of craving, (tanhd), egoism (mdna) and false belief (dittfii). 
Upatissa also refers to this view as an alternative to his view, 
but he remarks that these three are included in his fourteen, as 

1. XVI. 30, 85; XVII. 22, 50, 117; XIX. 3; XXII. 119. 

2. XVI. 85, XVII. 62. 

8. I. 19, 38; II. 78, 79; III. 74, 78, 80, 96; XIV. 71; XV. 39; 
XVI. 52; XVII. 8, 14, 223; XXIII. 4, 7, 11. 

4. In addition to those of the older sources referred to on pp. xxiv-xxv. 
6. p. 5. 


they are not different in meaning from some of those that are 
included in his fourteen. 1 

(ai) While speaking of the nimitta of the dndpdnasati, 
Buddhaghosa says in VIII.214, "There are some who say that the 
nimitta appears to some one, giving a pleasurable contact like 
that of soft cotton, or cotton-wool, or like a gentle breeze of 
wind. In the next paragraph, however, Buddhaghosa gives 
the opinion of the Atthakathas which he apparently accepts. 
Tvow, Upatissa gives a passage in which we can trace the expres- 
sions used by Buddhaghosa to express both these views. 2 
. (iv) Buddhaghosa refers in IX. 112 to the views of some 
people who believed that all the four appamaftnas can have all 
the four or five trances. Upatissa refers to this same view and 
quotes the very passage from A. iv. 300 given by Buddhaghosa. 
(v) In the Visuddhimagga XIV.42, Buddhaghosa refers to 
the views of some regarding the sensitive parts of the five sense- 
organs. "There are others who say that the eye is the sensitive 
part in which the element, of fire is predominant, the ear the 
nose, tongue and the body are the sensitive parts in which the 
elements of space, wind, water, earth, respectively, predomi- 
nate. This same view is given in a detailed manner bv 

(vi) Like Buddhaghosa, Upatissa also believed in the simul- 
taneous penetration into all the Four Truths. Upatissa refers to 
the view of those who believed in the attainment of Truths in 
successive stages (nandbhisamaya) and points out in detail the 
flaws in this view of theirs. He gives seven flaws,' at least two 
of which can be identified with some of the refutations of this 
theory, given in the Kathavatthu i.213, para. 5 ff., 216 para. 10 
Buddhaghosa refers to the theorists who held such views and 
dismisses them by saying that an answer to them has been givon 
in the Kathavatthu.' , 

(B) (i) In the Visuddhimagga II. 78, Buddhaghosa refers 
to a view of some who hold that there is an. akusala dhutanga. In 
1L 79, he also mentions those who think that the dhutanga is 
/cusalatti/cavmvmuttam'. Now, Upatissa seems to be holding 

\ l- Jf 2 - P' 70. 3. p. 81-82. 

bv 1 fT^ lng l°, the K't^atthu-Cominentary, this view was held 
ft* otSnS;eS b rS di ' ,S ' SammUiyaS aBd BHadray5nikaS «~ 

a view which corresponds to the latter of these views. 1 In the 
Commentary on the Visuddhimagga, Dhaniinapala commenting 
on the word 'those (yesam)' says that by this word, Buddhaghosa 
refers to those who lived in the Abhayagiri (Monastery). 
[Abhayagirivdsike sandhdya aha, p. 9G, Burmese edition.] 

(ii) In the Visuddhimagga III. 74, Buddhaghosa refers to 
the views of those who held the belief in fourteen cariyas, in- 
stead of six according to his belief. This same view of fourteen 
cariyas is accepted by Upatissa. 3 

(iii) There is a very important passage for our purpose in 
the Visuddhimagga III. 80, which read with Dhammapala's 
comment, goes a long way to determine the relation between 
Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga and Upatissa's Vimuttimagga. 
There, 3 Buddhaghosa says: Tatra, purimu tdva tisso cariyd 
2mbbdcinnaniddnd, dhutu-dosa-niddnd cd ti elacce vadanti. 
"There are some who say that the first three cariyas of these 
are determined by one's past actions, by [(the excess of some of] 
the four great elements and of the humours." Exactly this same 
theory is advocated by Upatissa. 

Dhainniapala in his Parauiattha-nianjusa, the Commentary 
on Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga, says, 1 while commenting on 
the word elcacce (p. 113 Burmese ed.) : "Ekacce ti Upatis- 
sattheram sandhayaha. Tena hi Vimuttimagge tatha vuttajp,." 
"The word 'some' is used with reference to the Elder Upatissa. 
He has said so in the Vimuttimagga." This is a very important 
comment by Dhammapala for our purpose. 

(iv) In continuation of the same passage, Buddhaghosa says 
in 111.81 : "They explain that one becomes rugacarita when 
there is excess of the humour of phlegm and one becomes 
mohacarita when there is excess of the humour of wind. Or, 
that one becomes mohacarita when there is excess of 
the humour of phlegm and rdgacarita when there is excess 
of the humour of wind." Buddhaghosa in the next P ara- 

1. PP. 23-24. 2. p. 34. 3. p. 35. 

4. My attention was drawn to this passage by Prof. M. Nagai. He 
.'": "J"™" - * of this P assa S? e b y Nyauatiloka who has published 
LlSdlJ the first volume of his German translation of the Visuddhimagga 
In his introduction to that book, on p. 6, he has quoted this Chinese 
passage ftvm our Chinese version of the Vimuttimagga. See also 
PraiWamutplda^sta' des Ullangha' von Vasudev Gokhle, TBonn 
1930] p. 10, foot-note 2. ' 


graph, III. 82, points out a defect in this argument, that this 
explains only raga and moha (rdga-moha-dvayameva vuttam). 
He means that there is no explanation of dosq. And another 
defect that he points out is that in the alternative explanation, 
the statement goes just counter to the statement in the first 
alternative. And so, he brushes aside the argument and con- 
cludes 'all this is an indiscriminate statement (sabbametavi 
aparicchinnavacanam) . ' 

Now it is curious to note that the argument that Upatissa 
offers is the same that is put in the mouth of these people by 
Buddhaghosa except that his statement explains not only raga 
and molia but also dosa. To make this point clear, let me re- 
produce the Pali rendering of the relevant passage 1 in our 
Chinese text: Semhddliiko vdga-carito, pittddhiko dosa-carito , 
■vdtddhiko moha-carito. Aparan cc. vuttam : semhddhilco moha- 
carito, vdtddhiko rdga-carito." Here we see that in the first 
part of this statement all the three, ruga, dosa, moha are men- 
tioned, while it is only in the last part that only two, vioha 
and raga, are mentioned, and this can be explained by saying 
that the exchange in the two alternatives is between raga and 
moha only, the second term 'dosa' is not mentioned because it 
remains unaffected. 

If we believe in the authoritative statement of Dhaniinapala 
that Buddhaghosa alludes to Upatissa and his Vimuttimagga, 
does this statement of Buddhaghosa imply that he misunderstood 
the point of view of his opponent or is it an example of deli- 
berate twisting by Buddhaghosa of his opponent's statement? 

(v) We have already pointed out 2 that Buddhaghosa, while 
speaking about the extension of the nimitta of the Brahmavihara 
says in III. 113-114 that it should not be extended. He allows 
the extension of only the ten kasinas (III. 109). Buddhaghosa 
dwells on this point of extension and shows his reasons why the 
nimitta of the Brahmavihdra should not be extended. It appears 
obvious, though he does not definitely say so, that Buddhaghosa 
has some people in mind, who hold this view. Now, Upatissa 
says (3.7? . 6-7) that the nimitta of the kasinas and Brahrna- 
viharas may be extended. 3 

(vi) In ih; Yisuddhimagga IV. 114, Buddhaghosa says: 
Patipaduvisuddhi ndm-a sa-sambhdriko upacaro, uiJekkhdnubrii- 
hana nama appand, sampahamsand ndmo paccavekkhand. ti 

1. p. 35. 

2. p. xxx. 

8. p. 39. 

evameke vaipiayanti" . ''There are some who interpret the 
purity of the course as the neighbourhood-trance together with 
its accompanying things, the cultivation of equanimity as the 
raptured state of trance, and gladdening as reflection." 
Buddhaghosa rejects this interpretation on the authority of a 
passage from the Patisambhidii and gives his own interpretation. 
Now Upatissa accepts exactly this interpretation 1 of those terms 
and the whole passage as given by him (4.17.10-4.17a.l) is 
identical in words with the passage quoted above from Buddha- 
ghosa. Dhammapala here again comes to our rescue. He gives 
us valuable information. He explains this word eke as Abhaya- 
gt-rivdsino, 'those who lived in the Abhayagiri [monastery].' 

(vii) In the detailed enumeration of rupas, Buddhaghosa 
gives, as we have already noted (p. xxxi), twenty-eight riipas 
(XIV.71). He mentions several other riipas, which some others 
would like to include, but he rejects them all, giving his 
reasons. Among these riipas, Buddhaghosa mentions jatirWpa and 
middharujm. Regarding the last, he says : Ekaccdnam matena 
middhai-dpa^in. Both these rupas Upa. includes in his 
list, which according to him consists of thirty rupas. 2 Here also, 
Dhammapala is of great help to us % He comments on the word 
ekaccdnam, as Abhayagirivasinain. 3 Upatissa and his school had 
a very consistent view about middharupa and we have already 
dealt with it above.* 

(vii) While discussing the phalasamdpatti, Buddhaghosa 
refers in XXIII. 7 to those who believed that the Sotapannas 
and Sakadagarais cannot have phalasamdpatti, but only those 
that occupy a higher stage than these (i.e. the Anagamis and 
the Arhats) can have. He also states the reason given by them, 
that only these last two have reached perfection in samddhi. 
He rejects their point of view on the ground that even an 
ordinary man (puthujjana) can attain the state of [perfection in 
a] lokiya-samddhi, and further, not wishing to bother himself 
with giving any more reasons, simply says: "Why think of 
reason or no reason? Has it not been said in the Sacred 

Texts ?" He gives a quotation from Fs. i. G8 to support his 

own view that all ariyas can have plialmamdpatti. Now Upa- 
tissa's position (12.6.6) exactly corresponds to the view of these 

1- P- 49. 2. p. 95. 

3. Burmese edition of Paramatthamanjusa, Vol. II. p. 520. 

4. p. xxxi. 



theorists 1 referred to by Buddliagliosa aud lie states exactly the 
same reason put in the mouth of these theorists by Buddhaghosa. 
It is curious to note that, immediately after this, Upatissa 
also makes a reference 3 to those who held that all Ariyas can have 
phalasamapatti and states as their authority the same passage 
from Ps. i. 68 (which Upatissa merely indicates by giving in- 
troductory words) on the strength of which Buddhaghosa. 
supports his own view and rejects that of his opponent. 

(ix) In the Visuddhimagga XXIII. 11, Buddhaghosa again 
refers to the views of those who believed that the Sotdpanna, 
starting penetrative insight with the intention of the attain- 
ment of the fruit (phalasamapatti) , becomes Sakaddgdmi, the 
Sakaddgdmi becomes Andgami. Upatissa's position is exactly 
the same 3 (12.17.5). Here again Dhammapala is helpful* to us 
in giving the information that this statement is made with 
reference to the Abhayagirivadins. 

Buddhaghosa continuing his argument points out the diffi- 
culty if the position of his opponent is accepted. He says that 
by accepting the view advocated by his opponents, we will be 
driven to conclude that an Andgami becomes an Arhat, an 
Arhat a Paccekabuddha and a Paccekabuddha a Buddha. 

Upatissa -seems to have anticipated this objection and he 
answers (12.17.5) that an Andgami, while starting his penetra-' 
tive insight for the attainment of the Fruit cannot immediately 
reach the Path of Arhatship, because he does not produce 
vipassand dassana as it is net the thing aimed at by him, and 
because his reflection is not powerful enough 5 [to enable him 
to reach the path of Arhatship] . 

Having studied the internal evidence of our two texts in so 
far as the similarity and dis-similarity of the ideas and in so far 
as reference to philosophical views or doctrinal points is con- 
cerned, let us now turn our attention to proper names — names, 
either of books, places, or personages mentioned in the 

(i) One cannot fail to notice the names of two or three 
works referred to by Upatissa. He quotes from San Tsang S W, 
at three different times 6 and one of these quotations exactly agrees, 
as we have already noticed (p. xxv), with the quotation from the 

I. p. 125. 2. p. 125. 3. p. 127. 

4. Burmese edition of Paraniatthamaiijusa Vol. II. p. 896. 

5. p. 126. 6. pp. 46, 47, 



Petaka given by Buddhaghosa in IV.8G. The other two quota- 
tions I could trace in the Petakopadesa of Mahakaccana, 
Vllth Chapter, pp. 157, 158 of Hardy's Manuscript (in Roman 
characters) preserved in the State Library of Berlin, a photo-, 
graphic copy of which I could secure some years ago. There 
is an edition of the Petakopadesa 1 in Burmese characters printed 
in the Zabu Meit Swe Press, Rangoon, 1917 and the passages in 
question are found on p. 191 of that edition. At the end of 
several chapters (iii,v,viii) of the Petakopadesa we read the name 
of the author Mahakaccana residing in Jambiivana. Prof. Hardy 
in his Introduction (pp. x-xvi) to the Netti-Pakarana advances 
a view on the supposed authority of Dhammapala's Commentary 
on Netti, that Petaka is an abbreviated name of the Petakopadesa. 
But this does not seem to me to be correct. I think Prof. 
Hardy has misunderstood the commentary. In the Commen- 
tary on the Netti-pakarana, Dhammapala mentions by name 
both the works, Petaka and Petakopadesa, separately. In the 
Sinhalese edition of this book edited by Widurupola Piyatissa- 
thera in the Simon Hewavitarana Bequest Fund Series, 
vol. IX, Petaka is mentioned on p. 1, verse 12, and on p. 3 a 
quotation is given from the Petaka 2 : 

Yattha ca sabbe hard sampatamdnd nayanti suttattham 
byanjanavidhi puthutta sd bhumi hdra-sampdto 'ti. 
On the other hand, we find the following passages : tatha hi 
agarahitdya dcariya-parampardya Petakopadeso* viya idam 
Netti-ijakaranam, dgatam (p. 3). Ayam ca attho Petako- 
padesena* vibhavetabbo (p. 175). And here are reproduced 
extracts which can be identified in the available Text of 
the Petakopadesa. 5 But the quotation ascribed here to Petaka 
is not traced. So also, although two of the three quota- 
tions referred to above are found in the Petakopadesa, 
the quotation which is ascribed by Buddhaghosa to Petaka 
I could not so far trace. Dhammapala in his Commen- 
tary on the Visuddhimagga refers to Petaka, almost in a similar 
"context, no less than three times (pp. 153,194,874). When he 
mentions it for the first time, he explains it as Mahdkaccd- 
natiherena desitam Pitakdnam samvannand. Therefore it 
seems to be a different work and hence we cannot identify it with 
Petakopadesa. The Chinese characters used for San-Tsang ordi- 

1. Also see Specimen des Petakopadesa von Rudolf Fuchs, Berlin, 
1908. 2. Netti, pp. x-xi. 3. Netti, p. xi. 4. Netti, p. 241. 

5. See NettiCm. (referred to above), Introd. p. 6. 



narily mean Ti-pitaka but bere they may stand for some specific 
work. Przyluski in bis «Le Concile de Rajagrha' p. 109 gives 
tbese characters and suggests that they may stand for 
Sarn[yukta]-pitaka. He also mentions Petakopadesa on p. 74 
of the book. Yamakami in bis 'Systems of Buddhistic Thought' 
mentions (p. 175) Sen-Cwhan, but in the absence of the original 
Chinese characters it would be hazardous to give its Indian 
equivalent. Under these circumstances, it woiild not be safe to 
identify San-tsang with Petakopadesa. Nor can we identify it 
with Petaka until we know more of both of tbese names, although 
the possibility of such identification is not precluded. 

While speaking of the advantages of Buddhanussati, Upa- 
tissa quotes" from Shiu-to4o-Nieh-ti-li-chu & £ ft S Jg **»• 
The quotation says that one who desires to reflect upon the 
Buddha is worthy to be respected like a place with the image 
of the Buddha. 1 To this Buddhagbosa has a corresponding 
remark in VIII. 67 : "Even the body of the man, who is given to 
the reflection upon the Buddha becomes worthy to be worshipped 
like a temple." At another place, in his treatment of Marmm- 
sati, Upatissa gives a quotation from Nie-ti-li-po-tho-shiu-to- 

lo 2 S Jg M. & PB <^ £ * whicl1 P ur P° rts to as * that if a man 
wants to" reflect upon death, be should reflect upon a dead per- 
son and see the cause of his death. Now both these texts appear 
to be the same, the only difference being that in one case the 
word cbu ft) seems to be used as a translation of the word pada 
and in another case po-tho & PS a trans-literation of the same 
word 'pada' is used. 

Upatissa, like Buddhaghosa, also refers to the Haiiddavasana- 
sutta 3 by using the Chinese translation (Yellow-Gannent-Sutta) 
of that name. Upatissa constantly refers to the Abhidhamma, in 
which he seems to include also Patisambhida, for passages defi- 
nitely known to be from that text are given by Upatissa as from 
the Abhidhamma.* 

(ii) Now we come to the names of places. While speaking 
of the round kasiiw, Upatissa says 'as round as Jambudipa 
(4.1a.5). In another place he speaks of the way to the country 
of Pataliputta (Po-li-phu-to 5 $E ffl $ £ )■ 

2 p 73; th« Sanskrit rendering of this title would be 'Netripada- 
sutra'- Cf. Netripadasastra of Sthavira Upagupta. [Abhidharmakosa 
ii. 205]. 3. p. 82. 4. See pp. 4, 125. 5. p. 85. 


Upatissa also refers to the Magadha country (6.13.8) and to 
the river Nerafijara (p. 64). 

(iii) Let us now take the names of personages. It is interest- P erS( 
ing to note that in the section on Maranasati, Upatissa refers, 
among other names, to the names of the hoary sages, Yessainitta 
(San. Yisvamitra) and Yamataggi 1 [San. Jamadagni, to which the 
Chinese transliteration Ja-mo-tha-li ( RU $S ^ ^ 7. 9a. 8.) corres- 
ponds], while Buddhaghosa refers (VIII. 19) to comparatively 
later personages in Hindu mythology, like Bhimasena, Yuddhit- 
tbila (San. Yudhisthira), Vasudeva, Canura. We also find the 
names of gods like Yama, Tusita (6. 20a. 6), Akanittha, etc. He 
also refers to mythological personages like Mahasudassna, Jotika, 
Jatila, Ghosita (9.2a.S), JIahagovinda, etc. He has also given the 
names of [Alara] Kalama, Uddaka Ramaputta (5. 12a. 8-9). We 
find Upatissa mentioning the name of Gotama as well as the 
names of great Buddhist Worthies like Sar-iputta, Moggallana, 
Ananda, Anuruddha, Sobhita, Ciilapanthaka, Bakkula, Sanjiva, 
etc. Towards the end of the book while speaking about vij>phara- 
samadhi, Upatissa gives a name which seems to be a Chinese 
transliteration of the name Moggaliputtatissa. 2 Most of tbese 
names are the Chinese transliterations of Indian names, except in 
a few cases like the names Sanjiva, Ciilapanthaka, which Sangha- 
pala respectively translates as jE ^ Right-Life (Sam-jiva), /J-> S§ 
Small-Road. Quite a few of these names occur in the quotations 
from the Pali texts which Upatissa gives. 

Like these proper names which are retained in Chinese Trans 
transliterations, it is interesting to note that there are many ratior 
other words transliterated into Chinese by Sanghapala, which a 

point to the Indian origin of the words. These words may be 
classified as follows: — 

Words like Candala (10.9a.7), Nigantlia (2.10a.8). 
Words like Acariya (acarya : a-ca-li), Upajjhaya, 

Veda (Wui-tbo). 
Names of semi-divine beings like Asura (9.6a.9.), Yaklcha, 
(9.6a.9), Rakkliasa (6.13.1), Gandhabba (kan-to-po 7.8.4.). 

1. See D. i. 184, 239-43; A. iv. 61. 

2. p. 127. It is a point considered why this name is inserted 
in the Vim. In the corresponding Pali passage from Ps. we find the 
names of only Sariputta and Sanjiva. Can this be an interpolation? 
For, Mai. (p. 42) tells us on the authority of Nikaya-Sangraha that the 
Vajjiputtakas who joined the Abhayagiri sect did not accept the authority 
of Moggaliputta-Tissa. 

Names of the nine d>i 8 ions of Buddhist literature like Sutta, 
Shiu-to-lo), Geyya, Veyy Parana, etc. (9.16a.89). 

Technical words in Buddhism, such as Dhuta (2.1.4), Sangha, 
Samatha (4.15a.3) Vipassand, (4.15a.4) Mandala (4.1a. 6) Pdti- 
mokklia, Parami (8.8.10 ff), Nibbdna, Pdnnd (pan-ro 9.16 10) 
Sanghdrdma (2.6a.l), Arannd (7.1a.3), Khana (cha-na 7.7a 9)' 
Dana (than 8.7.10), Samddhi (san-ml, 6.2a.l-2), Kalala (kya-lo- 
lo, Abbuda (a-phu-tho 7.13a. 10), etc. 

Names of offences mentioned in the Vinaya, like Pdrdjikd 
(1.1 6a. 8), Sanghddisesa (1.1 6a. 8). 

Names of garments: Kasava (12.18.7), Sanghdti (2.2a 7) 
Uttardsanga (2.2a.8) Antardvdsaka (2.2a.8), Koseyya, Kambala 

Names of fruits and trees like, Amba, (San. dmra : am-lo) 
Koviddra 3.2.6). ' 

Names of scented wood : Candann, Tagara (7.13a.l). 

Names of flowers and lotuses, such as, Uppala, Paduma, 
Pundarika (5.7a.9) Kumuda (7.13.6-7;, Kannikara (5.21.2). 

Periods of time, Asankkeyya. 

Number, Nahuta (San: nayuta-: Na-yu-tha). 

There are some words which are sometimes translated and 
sometimes transliterated such as samddhi, paniid, anapdna 
7.1.5 ff). And even the transliteration is not always the same. For 
instance, for uppala, we have sometimes yu-to-lo, (5.8.2) or some- 
times yu- P o-lo (5.7a.3) or even to-l (10.20a,3) j for Abhidhamma, 
we sometimes have pi-ta, or a-pi-ta, or sometimes we have 
a-pi-ta-mo; for dcariya we have a-ea-li r ca-li (2.7.10); for 
Arhat we have a-lo-han or lo-han (6.18.4). 

Let us note one peculiar fact about Upatissa. He seems to 
have some kind of contempt for, or a low opinion of, a Canddla. 
He refers to a Canddla i n three different places. In one place l 
there is a reference to a Canddla where we are told in a simile 
hat he has no desire for a princely throne.' At another place' 
W.W), to see a Candala.on the way is considered to be a suffi- 
cient reason for the laxity in the observance of the practice of 
sapaddna-cdrikd (going from house to house in succession for 
begging one's food). TJpatissa says that if a mendicant sees a 
Canddla on the way, he should cover his begging-bowl and may 



1. p. 15. 

2. A similar idea is also found in A. i. 107, A. ii:. 214. 



find T/ckTco "" r 1 8 '° fU1 ■ tller • , lQ the «** *- - 
CaLdla" C « t10 — Wnka) is compai , a to ft 

*J£tfs=: stsffis? J£ttES& 

::te r s ;ro c f e r d ' l v° t ?■ to *• ~ - £2T 

thafi^stvW^ 1 " " t -! atiSe ° f tLe ***&-»• and we find 
that its style of composition is in keeping with the style of the 
Abh dhamma books. A subject is treated by settL ' Jf* 
number of questions and then answering them one after Loir ' ' 
He gives the lakkhan*, rasa, paccupatthdna, and padatthdnaoi 
almost everything that forms the subject of his exposition. 
Occwon ally, as in the case of Jfe* etc., he also gives mmpa&ti 
and vtpatu. He treats the different sections of a particular 
subject separately, and then makes general remarks on all the 
different sections taken together. We see, for instance, that he 
treats metta Urund, mudita, and upekkhd, or rupa, vedand 
**>M sankhdm and vinndaia separately and then gives, like 
Jiuadhaghosa, general remarks under pakinnakakathd* Unlike 

fTTfr ^ gi ? S n ° St01 ' ieS at a11 t0 illustrat « tis point. 
lake Buddhaghosa, he makes use of quotations from ihe Pali 
texts, or other sources that are available to him. He also quotes 
a number o* gate as well as prose passages. We have alreadv 
seen aoove that Upatissa was a skilful master in the use of 
similes We have also noted that his interpretations are simple 

ac^ They are free from 8choiasti ° artificiai ^ 

If wc look closely at the mode of translation accepted b Y 
Sanghapala we find that very often he tries to be quite iLj 

which the Chinese renderings stand. Sometimes we find, as in 

Br 6 tLn See p T 2 3 r G " th5 ' 48 °- 486 attrib ^ P to 9 Sopaka ; Psalms of the 
4 ' PP ' 79 " 8 °' 5 - »■ 56 > ». 62, 78, 81, 87, 91, etc. 



Tibetan translations of Buddhist Sanskrit works, that even the 
prefixes are translated by corresponding words in Chinese. We 
have already seen above how even the prefix Sam in the name 
Sanjlva is translated by IE, the Chinese equivalent of that 
prefix. Similarly, the prefix pati or pati in the word patibhaga 
is translated by pi '$. and the Chinese equivalent for the whole 
word patibhaga is pi-phan $J %■■ Technical words like 
bhavanga, tadarammana, upapattibhava are quite literally 
translated by # fr, '$. *, .£ M respectively. 

We have thus considered practically all the aspects of the 
internal evidence bearing on our problem, afforded by our texts, 
particularly by the Vimuttimagga. Let us now take a review of all 
the facts that we have learnt from the internal or external 
3w. We have seen that both the texts often quote from the same 

older sources like the Pali texts of the Canon, the Poranas, the 
Pubbacariyas, the Atthakatkas, some specific work like the 
Petaka or San-Tsang H W. or some other common source which 
we may or may not be able to locate. We have also seen that 
although TJpatissa uses some similes, which are common to the 
Visuddhimagga, still he has many similes of his own which 
show that he is a skilful master in handling similies or meta- 
phors or illustrations. We have noted (p. xxvii) that he has some 
protracted similies which we do not find in the Visuddhimagga. 
We have also observed that in spite of some correspondences due 
to the common material which is drawn upon by both of them, 
TJpatissa has some peculiar doctrinal points, which are quite 
distinct from those held by Buddhaghosa. In fact, Buddka- 
ghosa is definitely opposed to several of those points. It has 
been seen that along with these differences in doctrinal points, 
there is also a difference in the. interpretation of some words 
and in the treatment of some topics. Upatissa's interpretations 
are simpler and more natural than Buddhaghosa's and often 
' they agree with the interpretations given in older works like the 
Vibhanga. There is a difference in the general exposition of 
even some sections such as those on Dependent Origination 
(hetu-pacpayd or paticca-samuppada) , on Vedana, Saiina, 
Sankhara and Viiinaya. In the comparative table of contents, 
we have noticed that TJpatissa gives the whole of the last chapter 
to Sacca-pariccheda, although he has already given a part of the 
eleventh chapter for the exposition of the Noble Truths 
(Saccani). Further, we have also noticed that there are about 



half a dozen references in. both the books to the same views held 
by some other theorists, that there are at least nine references in 
Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga to the views of others, whom he 
merely calls 'others' or 'some', but which exactly tally with the 
views advocated or accepted by TJpatissa in his Vimuttimagga. 
Incidentally, from the external evidence afforded by Dhanima- 
pala's Commentary on the Visuddhimagga, we have noted that in 
at least four of these cases, the reference is to the Abhayagiri- 
vadins. And besides, the most important reference for our purr 
pose is the mention that Dhammapala makes in one case. He 
definitely refers to TJpatissa and his book, the Vimuttimagga, and 
says that Buddhaghosa has these [!two] in his mind. We have 
seen that where one goes into a detailed treatment, the 
other is concise, or that where one is concise, the other 
goes into details. We have noted that occasionally TJpatissa 
introduces quite a new matter. We find that TJpatissa refers to 
a work called San Tsang H l(a quotation from which tallies 
with a passage ascribed by Buddhaghosa to Petaka) and to 
another work called Shiu-to-lo-Nieh-ti-li or Nieh-ti-li-po-tho- 
Shiu-to-lo, which so far we could not identify with any known 
Text. In the names of personages mentioned b.y TJpatissa, we 
noticed two important names of Visvamitra and Jamadagni, the 
hoary sages of Brahraanical literature, as contrasted with 
Blumasena, Yudhistkira, Vasudeva, Canura, personages of 
later Hindu mythology. We have also seen how even in the 
Chinese translation, Sanghapala retained many Indian words 
in their Chinese transliterations. And lastly we have also noted 
Upatissa's attitude towards the Candalas which seems to be 
rather inconsistent with the original attitude of the Buddha and 
his early followers. 

When we consider all these facte in the light of the external 
evidence afforded by Dhammapala's comment, what conclusion 
shall we be justified in drawing? When we take our stand on 
Dhammapala's explicit testimony in one case that Buddhaghosa 
alludes to TJpatissa and his Vimuttimagga, and that in four 
other cases the reference is to Abhayagirivadins, shall we not be 
justified in drawing conclusion that Buddhaghosa, while writ- 
ing several paragraphs in his book, Visuddhimagga, has 
Abhayagirivadins and Upatissa's Vimuttimagga in his mind, 
although he does net refer to them by name? As a natural corol- 
lary, Upatissa must be supposed to have advocated the views 
which were later accepted by the Abhayagirivadins. 


But it inight be argued what about the other two cases 
(p. xlii) that we have also noted above — one in which Upatissa 
refers to a view that is supported by Buddhaghosa, and the 
other in winch Upatissa seems to have anticipated the objection 
raised by Buddhaghosa to the view held by him? 

In view of the overwhelming evidence that we have given 
above in favour of the probability that Upatissa and his school 
have been at the back of the mind of Buddhaghosa, we can 
explain these allusions by Upatissa on the ground that they do 
not refer to the views of Buddhaghosa and his Visuddhimagga, 
but to the views that later came to be identified with those of the 
school of Mahavihara. 

Here one may raise the question : 'Is the evidence given by 
Dhammapala a reliable one?' Let us try to answer this question. 

At the end of the ParainatthamaSjiisa, the Commentary on 
Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga, we find the colophon : Badara- 
titthavihdravdsind Acariya-Dhammapdlena katd Paramattha- 
manjusa natna Visuddhimagga-Tikd samattd. 'Here ends the 
Commentary on the Visuddhimagga, the Commentary composed 
by Acariya-Dhammapala, who resided in Badaratitthavihara'. 
At the end of the commentaries on works like Thera- Theri-Gatha, 
Petavatthu, Vimanavatthu, and Netti-pakarana we find the 
same information about Dhammapala that he lived in 
the Badaratitthavihara. So it appears to be evident that 
the author of the Paramatthamanjusa and the author of 
the commentaries on Thera-Gatha, Theri-Gatha, Petavatthu, 
Vimanavatthu and Netti-pakarana, are one and the same 
person. Sasanavamsa (p. 33) tells us the same fact about 
Acariya Dhammapala, and further we learn that Dhammapala 
also composed the Tikas on the Digha, Majjhima and Samyutta 
Nikayas and Sariputta composed the Tikas on the Anguttara 
Nikaya. It, further, states that the B'adaratittha is in the 
country of Damilas, not far from the island of Ceylon. Gandha- 
vamsa (p. CO) also mentions among fourteen works ascribed to 
Acariya Dhammapala, the Commentary on the Visuddhimagga, 
and the Atthakathas on the Netti-pakarana, Thera Gatha, Peta- 
vatthu, Vimanavatthu, etc. 

This Acariya Dhammapala is supposed, though there is no 
direct evidence for this, to have lived not long after Buddha- 
ghosa himself. There is only an indirect evidence that we get 
from their works. Both belong to the same tradition and seem 
to be drawing upon the same old material. At the end of the 

coininentaries on the Petavatthu, Vimanavatthu and Theri-Gatha, 
Dhammapala says that for the composition of his commentaries 
he has used the old Atthakathas (Pordna-Atthakathd). So it is 
very likely that there was not very long time that elapsed be- 
tween Buddhaghosa and Dhammapala. 1 "When the famous 
Chinese traveller, Yuan Chuiin, speaks of his visit to Kancipura 
in South India, in or about 640 A.D., he tells us that Kanci- 
pura was the birthplace of Dharmapala. 2 Although there is no 
definite proof to show that he was the same as our Dhamma- 
pala, still it is very likely, says Dr. Rhys Davids, 3 that the 
reference is to our Dhammapala. 

It will thus be seen that if Dhammapala, who, as we have 
noted, may not have lived long after Buddhaghosa, (perhaps not 
later than two centuries), makes a definite statement about a 
certain school such as that of Abhayagirivadins or about Upa- 
tissa and his book, we have no reason to doubt it, especially 
when it is supported by other circumstantial evidence. 

Let us see what circumstantial evidence we get from the his- 
torical and religious conditions in Ceylon at the time of Buddha- 
ghosa's arrival in that country. 

It is common knowledge that Buddhaghosa belonged to the 
Mahavihara School which had in his time a powerful rival in 
the school of the Abhayagiri-vihara. To understand the situa- 
tion in Ceylon at this time let us go into more details about the 
history of the Abhayagiri school. 4 

On the spot where the Abhayagiri monastery stood there was Histor; 
in very early times a Tiithdrdma, a place of residence for holy Ab ayi 
men who belonged to other religions. 5 The Abhayagiri monas- 
tery was established in Ceylon 218 years after the establishment 
of the Mahavihava monastery. 6 This was so called because it was 
established by King Abhaya (Vattagamani) and because it was 
established in a place where a Niganfha by name Giri was 
living. It was given over to Mahatissa, who subsequently was 

1. Winternitz, II. 161. 

2. Beal, Records cf the Western World, II. p. 230. 

3. E.R.E. IV. pp. 701-702. 

4. This information about the Abhayagiri school has been already 
published by me in my article ' Vimuttimagga and *he School of Abhaya- 
girivihara in Ceylon' in the Journal of the University of Bombay, Vol. V, 
part iii, Nov. 1936. 

5. Mv. X. pp. 9S-1C2; Mai. p. 19. 

6. To be exact, 217 years, ten months and ten days; See Mr. 
XXXIII. pp. 79-81; also compare Dipa. XIX. pp. 14, 16. 

expelled from the Sangha of the Mahavihara oa a charge of 
^f? ° f W ° rIdI ^ -tact One of his disciples, King 
sTon of hT t I "TT 1 ? ° f th6 Mahavihara *« the espul 

es'bU he ' ! 1 ViMm ^ S ° me fdW » and 

estabhshed a new sect which subsequently came to be called 

11 thTi, f ay f "r^ 115 - Th6Se P ^ h ™»™ off 

Th™ , The , ravada °f the Mahavihara.- They split, the 
Theravada-monks a second time when they broke the community 
of monks at the Dakkhinavihara. 2 community 

This Abhayagiri school which owed its origin purely to a 
disciplinary measure against an individual, graduajy cLa to 
be a centre of Buddhist monks, who did not agre ,wT tk 
community at the Mahavihara on doctrinal S'U 
-nks from Pallar(? l)arama in India came oC ^ TW 

refund 0° ^ VaJJ ' ipU "/- Kikaya d -cended from' Ise who 

ZlZl f °- reco ^ lze Moggaliputta-Tissa's council. Their 
teache as Acanya Dhammarud He> fin J^r 

Mahavihara community, Joined the Abhayagiri fraternity, which 
^henceforward came to be known as Dhammaruci-N k^ 

for near"; JZ < "> ""jV* - PMCe ° f <**»«* ^ 
tor nearly twelve centuries and the monks belonging to this sect 

o7 : tw *tr :L l Tr r rks settin * forth ** ~ 

rtL T r f0r ; unateI y> io ^", religious intolerance led to 

tear ins" of the a ~ - - *- 

The Abkayagirivadins were on the descent or on the ascent 

53L A,*"* ' th ° rnS ' ( *"**> ia ^ -ligiolof the" 
Buddha. At another time, we read, during the refgn of King 

1. Mv. XXXIII. p. 06. 

2. Ibid. p. 99. 

B-JyJ™-S:z -mls£££j£ ^7^T" sins — •*** 

4. Sv. p. 24; Mai. p 42 Cf M -r " -r 

<i iw ^Maj/affim'ta-no bhikkhu " ' m ' pp ' 17 5-76: D7«Jmmaruc.7.a 

tMstc^r-^S^^p gf that 6Ven "" — -*« ° f 
6. Regiaa.d Farrer, Old C^, p. 288 . Mv . xsxyi pp m ^ 


Mahasena- (275-302 A.D.), Mahavihara was left by monks as 

we e Til r n U 1 ; 61 ' 56 " 1611 * ^ ^ RuinS ° f ^hapasada 
««e taken to Abhayagiri and Abhayagiri prospered. 2 

A the time when Buddhaghosa came to Ceylon, King Maha- 
" ama : VaS r : ,h , ng - ****** before he became the king was 
a member of the Order. He became infatuated with thT Zl 
o his brother Upatissa, who was subsequently killed by Z 
MahSnama left the Order, seized the throne, and married j£ 
brothers wife. The Mahavihara community did not look w 
favor at the treachery of Mahan,ma. So Mahana^a and ^ 
Wife were the Abhayagiri School/ 

We have another testimony to support our belief that the 

t&ZVrZ 7 t apros ?T S C °" dition when Buddhagh 1 
visited Ceylon. Fa-hien visited Ceylon, stayed there for two 

years and returned about the year 413 A.D.- He te s us th" 

: h ;; Tr r fi r thousand monk8 * *• 5£E 

a new monastery ' ^^ ° f a KlD » wh ° buiIt 

Jl ti i:?. aBo <,,a he ™ ite " ? wh " - « t°o» £- 

t Mv. XXXVIt. p. 212. ' " '■ 

f- ^' p arker, 'Ancient Ceylon', p. 301 

?: ib?d r :V f ir icn ' traa8L by James Le ^ i9s ^ ? . los. 

9. 'This King must b6 Mah5nama)) Leggej p 108 8 ; Ibid., p. 107. 


origin of 

To these questions unfortunately we cannot give very satis- 
factory answers. We can simply suggest certain probabilities. 
Beyond the bare mention of Upatissa by Dhammapala, we have 
no other external evidence. From Dhammapala 's remarks in his 
commentary on the Visuddhimagga we can simply draw an in- 
ference that Upatissa's book was later accepted by the monks 
from the Abhayagiri school. We have already seen above 1 in the 
history of the Abhayagiri sect that many monks from India 
came and joined that sect. It is very likely that Vimuttimagga 
was one of the books brought" over from India. From the 
internal evidence of the book we may say that there is no refer- 
ence to any name 2 or place in Ceylon. We find in this book 
many words which are transliterations of Indian words. The 
list of worms residing in different parts of the body gives names 
which are transliterations of Indian names. These names must 
have been taken by Upatissa from some old work or works on 
medical science. Besides, the references to a Caiulala, which we 
have already noticed, also point to the origin of the book in 
India, 3 particularly, in South or Dravidian India where there is 
a very strong prejudice against Candalas. 

My discovery of the Tibetan version 4 of the third chapter 
on 'dhutas' is also important. The original of the Tibetan as 
well as the Chinese version seems to be the same. Wherever 
the Chinese test differs from the Pali text, the Tibetan also 
differs. It shows that the book did not disappear from India 
when its oopy was taken out of India on way to China but it 
was studied in Buddhist schools of India at least till 
the eighth or ninth century A.D. when the Buddhist 
Pandits from India commenced to visit Tibet. The name 
of Vidyakaraprabha who is mentioned along with a Tibetan 
collaborator in the colophon of the Tibetan version is given 
by Shri Sarat Chandra Das in his 'Indian Pandits in the Land 
of Snow' pp. 49-50, among the names of those learned scholars 
who were invited by King Ral-pa-chan of Tibet in the ninth 
century. This Tibetan text provides an additional evidence to 
show the Indian origin of the book. It does not appear to be 

1. p. Hi. 

2. Unless the name Narada (p. 134) referred to any high personage 
from Ceylon, which seems to us to be very improbable. 

3. Upatissa's change of the 'yellow' colour of the earth for hasina 
(as said by B.) into 'black' (p. 43) may be considered as significant. Can 
it suggest the black soil of the country of origin of Upatissa? 

4. See foot-note 1 on p. 16. 


probable that a text from Ceylon was taken over to India and 
there it was studied in Buddhist schools and that it assumed 
such importance as to be translated, in part at least, in Tibetan. 

As to the ■ 1 ate of the composition of this book, our surmise 
is that this work seems to belong to a period not far later than ^^abU 
the literary period of post^canonical Pali Literature, when the p ie ot 
Netti and the Petakopadesa — both of which are companion- 
volumes by Mahakaccana— were composed. For, we find in the 
Vimuttimagga a number of passages' -which closely agree with 
passages from the Petakopadesa and they have been given or indi- 
cated at different places in foot-notes. For instance, see a passage 
in the Introductory chapter (p. 2) : Dve hetii dvc paccaya sdva- 
kassa sammdditthiyd uppaddya : parato ca glioso saccdnusandhi 
ajjliattan ca yoniso manasikaro. Compare with this Vimutti- 
magga 1.2.6 % fit Pi| g IE &. Here we find that the words 

& IE ;& exactly correspond to ajjliattan, ca yoniso manasikaro. 
The text of the Vimuttimagga is more akin to the text of the 
Petakopadesa than to the passage from M.i.294, A.i.87, 
which also we have given in the foot-note on p. 2. Hardy, 
editor of Netti, gives as the date of the composition of Netti 
'about the beginning of our (Christian) era, or shortly later.' 2 
Our book therefore, may be put somewhere in the first two 
centuries after the beginning of the Christian era. 

There is one more point about which we cannot make any 
definite statement, namely the original language of the Vimutti- Languag 
magga. Whether the text was originally in Pali or some Buddhist 
Sanskrit, (closely allied to Pali-Prakrit), like that of Divyava- 
diina, Siksasamuccaya, Lalitavistara or Mahavastu, it is 
not possible to say with certainty. From a large number of 
Pali books quoted or used by the author, it may be infered that 
Upatissa also wrote his book in Pali. We have indicated 
in the main part of this book how his passages correspond to 
passages from Pali literature, particularly the Nikayas, Vibhanga 
and Patisambhida. The Chinese transliterations also are not 
much helpful in enabling us to decide this point. For instance, 
although Ja-mo-tha-li, am-lo, na-yu-tha correspond respectively 
to Sanskrit Jamadagni, antra, nayuta, the word uppala or utpala 
is found to be transliterated both by u-po-lo, u-to-lo, or to-lo as 
shown above (p. xlvi). 

1. For a collection of these passages, see Appendix A 3. 

2. Netti, Introduction p. xxxn. 




Personal What we know of Upatissa from this book is very little, 

information As we have noted above, he seems to be acquainted with Indian 
medical works. In addition to the list of worms in the different 
parts of the body, we find Upatissa going into the details of 
the development of the foetus from week to wek. He also gives 
(7. 17a. 5-7) the names of several diseases — those of the eye, ear, 
nose, tongue, body, head, heart, mouth, teeth, asthma, cold and 
fever (malaria), epileptic fits, fever leading to delirium, diseases 
of the skin like leprosy, boils or blisters, haemorrhage, intestinal 
and urinary diseases, etc. We may also recall the simile, 
which he has given (p. xxix) of a hot drink as being 
not salutary to a man who has the excess of bile in his 
humours. He has also illustrated the appropriateness of 
the order of the four Noble Truths by the simile of a 
physician who sees the symptoms of a disease, knows the cause 
of it and then prescribes an appropriate remedy for it. 1 Upa- 
tissa appears to be very harsh with an absolutely ignorant man. 
He would prescribe no kammatthana for him but he asks him 
to stay with his teacher and develop the power of understand- 

Several references tc Sariputta in this text make it clear that 
Sariputta, the favourite disciple of the Buddha, could never be 
the author of this book. Also, Prof. Nagai's suggestion that' 
Upatissa, who belonged to the line of the Theras in the first 
century A.D. in Ceylon, may have been the author of this 
book is not borne out by the internal evidence. We have already 
seen that there are uo references to places in Ceylon and it may 
also be borne in mind that the author of this book reveals no 
special mastery of the Vinaya which is claimed by Prof. Nagai 
for that Upatissa who lived in the first century A.D. in Ceylon. 
So his theory will have to be rejected. 

Here, some one may still say that Dhammapala's testimony 
may not be considered as reliable unless it is corroborated br- 
other evidence, and therefore the correspondence between our 
two texts can as well be explained on the supposition that when 
Buddhaghosa's work, the Visuddhimagga, came to be well- 
known, some one with leanings toward the Abhayagiri sect may 
as well have composed this book, Vimuttimagga. 

To this we may reply that the whole of the internal evidence 
is against any supposition of that kind. Buddhaghosa's work 

1. pp. xxviii, 110. 

2. pp. 36, 41, 42. 


decidedlv appears to be an amplification of, and a great im- 
provement upon, the bare old skeleton-like frame of the \ iniutU- 
magoa. For instance, we may here recall what we have already 
noted that Buddhaghosa, with the possible exception of one 
or two cases, gives a greater number of the categorical 
enumerations of the different technical or doctrinal points than 
Upatissa. Upatissa gives four categories of sila whale B. gives 
five. Upatissa gives four ways of cultivating SndptoataU 
while Buddhaghosa gives eight. Upatissa gives ten kinds of 
catvJMtuvavattMna, while Buddhaghosa gives thirteen. In 
Upatissa, we find only six things mentioned that correspond 
to Buddhaghosa's palibodhas, while in the Visuddhimagga we 
have ten. Upatissa gives only four advantages of savuullu 
while Buddhaghosa gives five. Upatissa mentions five kinds of 
ahare patiUula-saMu, while Buddhaghosa gives ten. And such 
examples could be multiplied. 

" Similarly we have noted that Upatissa's interpretations of 
some terms like bhikkhu, PatimoJMa, Dharnma riipasanna, 
akasa, mbbana, etc. are simpler, more natural, devoid of scholas- 
tic artificiality and agree with older interpretations of canonical 
books. This clearly shows that Buddhaghosa's work marks a 
decidedly later stage than that of the Vimuttimagga. 
Thus to conclude, 

(i) from the internal evidence of the book, (a) which shows 
abundant similarities between the Vimuttimagga and the 
Visuddhimagga, (b) which shows that many of the untraced 
passages in the Visuddhimagga ascribed by Buddhaghosa to the 
Poranas, or to the Atthakatbas are found in the Vimuttimagga, 
(c) which shows that the Vimuttimagga belongs to a school difiei- 
ent from that of Buddhaghosa, and that it contains as many as 
nine passages giving the views that exactly tally with those 
ascribed by Buddhaghosa to 'some' ; 

(ii) from the external evidence afforded by the Am* terti- 
monv of Dhammapala, who comments that in a particular place 
Buddhaghosa refers to Upatissa and his Vimuttimagga; and 

(iii) from the general political and religious conditions m 
Ceylon, at the time of Buddhaghosa's visit to that country in 
the first quarter of the fifth century, 

we think it highly probable that Buddhaghosa wrote his 
Visuddhimagga after the Vimuttimagga, and that very pro- C o„clusio, 
bablv he had that book before him when he wrote his Visuddhi- 
magga. We only say 'highly probable'. Because before the final 

Iviii VTMrrriMAGG.Y 

decision can be given on this subject, we should like Dhamma- 
pala's statement to be confirmed by some other evidence; and 
also the following points — which cannot be decided in the 
present state of our knowledge of the Buddhist and allied 
literatures — will first have to be cleared up : — 

(i) the source of the passages in the Vimuttimagga such as 
that which gives the names of worms in the human body, that 
which gives the development of the foetus from week to week; 

(ii) whether Sfm-Tsiing H ffl. is the same as Petaka ; 

(iii) the identification of Nieh-ti-li-po-tho-shiu-to-lo ( ffi M 
IB i& PS £ £ M ) with any known sutla. 

Out of the four probable theories, that we suggested at the 
beginning of this introduction, 1 we have just shown that the 
second cannot be accepted. The third also is not acceptable be- 
cause of the clear referernces in the Yisuddhimagga to the 
views of other theorists, which we have shown, on the authority 
of Dhamniapala, to be the views of the Abhayagiriviidins and 
which exactly tally with the views given in the Vimuttimagga. 
The fourth also cannot be accepted because we do not find any 
(ouches in. the Vimuttimagga that are decidedly purely Maha- 
yanistic. 2 And so, the only theory, that seems to us as the 
most probable, is the theory no. 1 : 

That Buddhaghosa had Upatissa's book, Vimuttimagga, 
before him and that he, taking the frame work of Upatissa's 
Vimuttimagga, amplified it with his scholastic erudition and 
composed his work, Visnddhimagga, which has certainly far 
outshone Upatissa's Vimuttimagga.. 

e » e » s 

The references in the Vimuttimagga are given to the handy 
and popular edition of the book, printed and published at Bi-ling 
j£ ggin the province of Kiang-su £C $£ in 1918. I have also 
occasionally given references to the Taisho edition of the 
Buddhist Chinese Tripitaka published under the direction of 
Prof. J. Takakusu and Prof. K. Wantanabe. 

The text of the Vimuttimagga is given in volume No. 32 
of this series, pp. 399-461 (no. 1648). I have also consulted, 

1. pp. xvii-xviii. 

2. The twelve dhutangas, ten PSramitas, the Buddhadhammas men- 
tioned by Upa. [see pp. 16, 65-65] agree with the Pfi'.i tradition. They 
do not agree with the lists in the Mvy. 1128-39, 914-923, 135-53 and 
Chinese Dharmasangraha. XXXIV (pp. 31, 118), V (pp. 24, 121) and 
XLI (pp. 34, 119). 



for checking up the different reading?, the Tokio edition of the 
Tripitaka. The text of the Vimuttimagga is found in this series 
in case 24, Vol. Ill [ * H 1 pp. 22-74. The text of the Visnddhi- 
magga that I have used is the one that has been edited by Henry 
Clark Warren and revised by Prof. Dharmanauda Kosambi. It is 
expected to be shortly published in the Harvard Oriental Series. 
I cannot conclude this introduction without acknowledging 
my debt. I have to express my deep gratitude to Prof. K. T. 
Mei, who was teaching Chinese in Harvard University during 
my stay there (1929-.32). He encouraged me in undertaking 
the study of Chinese, and but for his help it would have been 
impossible for me to accomplish anything in this line of 
research. I have also to express my debt to Prof. Dharmanauda 
Kosambi, my teacher, who first, initiated me into the field of 
Buddhist studies, especially in Pali Literature, for going over 
my first draft and making valuable suggestions. I have also to 
express my sincere thanks to Prof. Walter E. Clark and to tho 
late Prof. J. H. Woods, of Harvard University — who alas! is no 
longer living — who looked over my work and made some useful 
suggestions when these pages were first being penned about 
five or six years ago. And last, but not least, I cannot forget 
my friends, Mr. Hideo Kishimoto 1 and Mr. J. E. Ware 5 who 
were of great help to me in checking references to Chinese 
books and discussing the interpretations of some knotty passages. 

1. Now of the Imperial University, Tokio, Japan. 

2. Now of the Chinese Department, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mass. U.S.A. 




Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammdsambuddhassa 

[Bk. 1.1.4-1.4.5 ;Tak. 399o-400 b. cf. Vis. 1.1-15] 

"Sila, Samddhi, Paiiild and Awuttara Vimutti — these N.O. 
dharamas the illustrious Gotama understood in succession.'" 
With this introductory stanza, Upatissa (henceforth abbreviat- 
ed as Upa.) commences his introductory chapter. He continues — 
'When a man has to reach the other shore, the Nibbdna, he 
has also to know the way that would enable him to reach 
that state. He must ask things about the Sutta, A bliidhamma. 
and Vinaya. I must tell the way to Deliverance. Listen to me 

Upa. nest gives us a brief comment on the introductory 
stanza given above. Sila means sila-samvara. Samddhi means 
avikkhepa. Paniid means sambodhiiidna. Vimutti means 
escaping from fetters. Aiimttard means andsava. He com- 
ments also on the other words in that stanza. 

In continuation of the same, Upa. classifies Vimutti into 
five kinds: 

(i) Vikkh-ambhana-vimutli : to check the nivaranas XIII. 12 
while practising the first 
(ii) Tadanga-vimutti : to be free from ditthis while 

cultivating the nibbedha- 
(iii) Samuccheda-vimutti : to remove and destroy all 

kinds of ties or bonds, 
(iv) Patippassaddhi-vimutti : to enjoy the cittappassaddhi 
at the time of the attain- 
ment of the fruit, 
(v) NissaTana-vimutti: Anupddisesa-nibbdna. 

See A. ii. 3; D. ii. 123: 

Silam samddhi paSiio ca vimutti ca anuttarS 
anubuddhd ime dhamma Gotamena yasasaind. 


[Chap, i 

'That by which one reaches Deliverance is the Path of 
Deliverance, the Maggapatipadd. And this way to Deliverance 
is accomplished with the help of sila, samadhi and patina. 
And I must tell this way.' 

Upa. here goes on telling us why it is necessary to tell about 
the Path. Because, says he, there are some men who are 'with 
little dust' (apparajakkha) and who wish to attain Deliverance 
but if they do not know of this path, they are like blind men 
who wish to go far off to a distant country without any guide. 
These men will only suffer without reaching their goal. They 
wish to attain the Deliverance but they do not know the ways 
and means by which it could be attained. He gives another 
quotation in which the Blessed One is said to declare that there 
are two ways in which one can have sammd-ditthi, either by 
learning about it from others, or by proper reflection.' So, he 
says, he must speak about the Way to Deliverance (Vimutti- 

The vikkliambhana-vimutti-magga is fulfilled with the 
help of the three khandhas, silakkhandha, samddhikkliandha 
and pahndkliandha. He explains these terms, the first mean- 
ing sammd-vdcd, sammd-kammanta, and samma-djiva and 
other things included with them ; the second meaning sammd-, 
vdydma, samma-sati and samma-samddhi and other things 
included with them; and the last meaning sammd-ditthi, 
sammd-sankappa and other allied things. He gives also 
another alternative explanation. One must learn the three 
sikkhas, adhislla-sikkhd, adhiciUa-siklihd, and adhipannd- 
sikkhd which terms also are explained. By these sikkhas, the 
three visuddhis of slla, citta and dit(.hi are accomplished which 
are no more than sila, samadhi and pannd. 

This vikkh-ambluma-vimutti-magga is ddi-kalydna, majjhe- 
kalydna and pariyosana-kalyana in so far as the sila, samadhi 
and pannd, which are the adi, majjlva and anta of this Path, 
are kalyana. By means of sila, one removes desires and 
attachments, and finds delight in faultless pleasure. By 
samadhi, one removes self-torments and delights in piti and 

1. Cf. M. 294; A. i. 87(9): Dve' me, bhikkhave, paccaya samma- 
dit(hiya uppadaya. Katame dve? Parato co ghoso yoniso ca manasi- 
karo. Also cf. the very opening words of the Petakopadesa : Dve hetu dve 
paccay& sdvakassa sammaditthiya uppadaya: paroto ca ghoso saccanu- 
sandhi, ajihattafl ca yoniso marnxsikaro. 

Chap, i] 


sukha. By paiiiid, one makes the saccapariccheda and attains 
the Middle Path, and is profoundly delighted in Sambodhi. 

If the sila is more intensely developed and the other two 
less then one becomes Sotdpanna or Sakaddgdmi. If the 
sila and samadhi are more developed, and paMa less, one 
becomes Andgami. Practising all the three in then- perfec- 
tions, one becomes an Arhat, anuttara-vimutta. 

I, 140. 



[Bk. 1.4.6-1.18.3 (end of the Bi.); Tak. 400c-404b. Cf. Vis 
I.1G— end of the Firat chapter.] 

a nnH lm ' a V he ° 1 U . SetSet8UpqUe8ti0USwllichl1 '' takes one after 
another and explains them himself. • 

1. 17; diff. 1. 

Kim silavi ? 




[Cf. B.» I. 17 where we have a 
quotation from Ps. i. 44 whicll 
adds cetasika-stla after the first 
of these sllas. The explanation 
of these differs except in the last 
case where only it agrees.] 

la attempting to give another alternative explanation TTn 

silam. And in continuation of this he eives » W L 1 

from P, i. 46-47 which is also quoted in B I 140 Z ',* 
given by Upa. [1.4a.3-1.5.7; Tak 400c 26 1 V. , hepaSSa * e 
^ given by B. and it is substantial ^1 .", S^f^' 
me«a *am acc A„ nAma paftona^-^ft line in ft* 17 \ 

cetana, samvaro, avUiklmmo silam (fourth If. , "?*' 

m- ., *., „,,, »« opl th ,r cu™ ^ t 

2. iEtij* silassa lakkhanam? 

oJa f ha . Ve ."T* and t0 rem0ve «W«*. U pa RO es into 
the det ai ls of what constitutes a,^^ Ee ^ £* 

2. Ascribed by Upatissa to Abhidhamma. 

I. 21-22 

Chap. n. 8] SILA-PAIUCCHEDA 6 

violating the Patimokkhadliamma, paccayadliamma, and 
iiidriyadhamma, which terms again ho explains. 

3-5. Kdni rasa-paccupattlidna-padattlidndni? 

Anavajja-sukham raso, anupaydso paccupatfhdiiarn,, and 
sucaritattaya-samdcdro padaf-tlianam. He also gives another 
alternative that somanassa is the rasa, avippatisdra paccu- 
papthana, and indriya-gutti padat-tltana. 

6. Ko silassa dnisarnso? 

Avippatisdro. And the same passage as is quoted in Vis. I. 23 I. 23 
from A.v. 1 can be traced in a slightly abridged form. He 
also gives many other advantages that arc included by B. in 
verses in 1.24. This paragraph is concluded with the remark : 
evam anantdnisavisam silavi. 

7. Kiviatthavi silam? 
sampayuttaUhavi : 

and also : 

J. 19 

Cf. B.I. 19. This is much 
more detailed than B's. 
[■ treatment. This gives 
many more atthas than 
those given by B. 




"I The first two of these are referred 
to by B. in 1.19 where he ascribes 

! them to aniie. [Dhammapala 
explains this word simply by anno 
dcariyd.] Upa. explains these by 
giving very appropriate similes. 

I. 19 
refers to 
the first 

8. Acdrassa ( ff ) ca silassa ca kivi ndndkaraiiam? 

When a man works strenuously and resolves upon dhutas, it 
is dedra and not sila. Sila is also named dedra and samvara 
but acceptance (of dhutas) is dedra. 


[Chap, a. 


Kati sildni? 

Kusalam silavi 

Akusalam silavi 

Abydkatam silavi 

These are explained as bodily and 
vocal activities, respectively meri- 
torious, demeritorious and free 
from depravities (asavas) ; good, 
r bad and pure livelihood ; and 
[activities] bearing good, bad and 
no fruition. [B. refers in 1.38 
to this classification given in Ps. 
i. 44, but rejects it.] 

10. Kim-samutthanam silavi? 1 

Kusalacitta-samutthdnam kusalam silam. 
Akusalacitta-samutthdnam akusalam silam. 
Abydkatacitta-savivpthanam abydkatam silam. 

11. Kani silassa adi-majjha-pariyosdndni? 

Samadanam adi, avitikkamo majjho, abhirati pari- 

12-13. Kati dhavimd silassa antardyika? Kati silassa hetu? 

(i) Catuttimsa dhammd maggassa antardyika : kodho, 
paldso, makkho, santdpo ($&), 2 macchariyam, issd, sdtheyydm 
( &] ), mdyd, upandho, fg (rivalry), vidno, atimdno, mado, 
paviddo, kossajjam, lobho, arati, ananvayandnam ( ^ {£ ^ 
not following wisdom), 3 micchd sati, pdpikd vdcd, pdpakd 
mittS, pdpakam iidnam, pdpikd ditthi, akkhanti, assaddlid, 
ahinkam, anottappam, kdyikavdcasikabydpdresu assddo ( *£ 
# P Bfc), itthijanchi samvaso, satthu sikkhdya agdravo, in- 
driyesu asamvaro, bhojane amattannutd, pathamdya rattiyd 
pacckimdya ca rattiyd ajdgariydnuyogo, 1 jhdna-sajjhdydn-ara 
abhdvo. Ime catuttimsa dhavimd viaggassa antardyika. 

1. Ps. i. 44. 45. 

2. See Mvy. 4925, 4926 where the character used for tapana is 
similar to this, though not identical. Also see Kimura, 'The Original 
and Developed Doctrines of Indian Buddhism (in Charts)', pp. 6, 
18 and 39 where we do find the word anutapa included among the 

3. Does this correspond to Vasubandhu's asamprajanya (see 
TriuuSika-Vijfifipti, p. 32) for which Suzuki reads /f J£ _g, ? See D. 
T. Suzuki, Studies in Lankavatfua Sutra, p. 39C. 

4. See Kimura, ibid., p. 39. It gives some terms which correspond 
to a few of these. 

Chap. B. 14. (A) (ix)l SILA-PARICUHUDA I 

(ii) The oppositea of these dhammas are the hetus of sila. 
14. Katividham silam? Duvidliain, tividliam, catubbidham. 
(A) Katharn, duvidliam? 

(i) Cdriitam \ The explanation is substantially the 1.20 

Vdrittam I same as is given in B.I. 20. 

(ii) Hdnabh-dgiyam : able to destroy dussila. 

Pattibhagiyain: able to attain all kusala dhammas 
and remove all kinds of dussilas. 

(iii) Loli'iam l « • i ? i • j> • , 

An y a-may ga-p Itaielu adlngatam 

silam lokuttaram; sesam lokiyavi. 

Lokiye silc sampddite vpasampanno 

lioti, lokuttare vimutto. 

Sappamdnam : aiiupasampanna-silam. 

Appamxdnavi : Buddhena, paniiattam ujiasampanna- 

This substantially agrees with B.I. I. 31 
31, giving the substance of the quo- 
tations iu that paragraph from 
Ps. i. 43,44. 


Sapariyan tarn 

(vi) Nissitam: subdivided into three classes of tanhd, I. 29 
ditthi and vidna, of which only the first two I. 33 
correspond to B.I. 29, while the explanation of 
the third as given by Upa. is found in the first 
tika of hina, majjhivia and pam,ila of B.I. 33. 
Anissitam: vimutti-samblidra-sampann-am, Upa. also 
adds : nissitam duppanne?ia abhinanditam, anissi- 
tam sappailnena abhinanditam. 
(vii) Adibrahmacariyakam : samma-lzammanto , savima- I. 27 
djivo, sammd-vdyamo. 
Khuddakdnukhudda.ka-sikkhd : sesam. [S. a. with the 
first two quotations in B.I. 27.] 
(viii) Citta-sampayuttam: ddi-sikkhd-brahmacariyam. n.O. 

Citta-vippayuttam : sesam khuddakam. 

(is) Avitikkama silam: sdvaka-silam. N 

Visuddhi silam : Buddlidnan ca Paccekabuddlidn-an ca 



Lt-'DAP. II. 14. (A) (X) 

I. 30 




This corresponds to B's. classification 
of I. 30. The explanation generally 
agrees with that of B. Upa. adrls 
that the fruit of the former takes 
time to mature while that of the 
latter is immediate (fc RS). 

(B) Katham tividliam? 

(i) Pdpa-7iimmiilanena avitikkamo ( Jh 33 -t- 3G ) : To 
stop all evil; although [slla] is not accepted, still 
he considers it to have been accepted and does not 
even think of transgression. 
Samddanena avitikkamo (J£ ^ J$B). To accept [a vow 
of] non-transgression and so to abstain from 

Samucchedanena avitikkamo (gf ^ iJE) : Ariyo jano 
ariyena maggena pdpahetv, samucchindati . 

I. 35 a.d. (ii) Pardmattharn : pu-bbev-utta-sa/Usam sa-tanhdditthi- 


Apardmattham : puthujjan-a-kal'ydnakassa silam, mag- 
gappattiyd sambhdrabhutavi. 

Patippassaddham ( %4fi- )- : Arahatta-silarn. [This last 
is slightly different from B.I. 35.1 

1. 34 s.a. (iii) Loka-mssitam ! S.a. with attddhi pabeyya , lokd- 

Atta-nissitam r dhipateyya, and 

Dkamma-nissitam j pateyya in B.I. 34. 

N.O. (iv) Visamam [or, micchd] panihitam (gjf %& 7f &f) : to 

accept slla to give trouble to others. 

Samam (or samvnid) panihitam ($f {$( #|) : to accept 
slla for happiness in this life, as well as, for 
happiness of deliverence in the future. 

Appanihitam ($& $f ££() : to accept sila without regret 
(avippatisdra) and for the good of others. 

1. Or, Kulabhagiyam and dehc.ntitcam. 

2. Taisho and Tokio editions. 


(v) Visvddham -, S.a. with B.I. 30 except that Upa. 

adds here one more case under the 1. 3C s.a. 
heading of avisuddh-a : sancicca 
dpattiyd dpajjanam ; dpanndya 
dpattiyd avippatisdro. He also 
remarks : sace yogdvacarassa 
silam avisuddham hoti, gambhlro 
vippati sdro uppddctobbo ; sace 
vematikam, dpaniidpattiin, jd- 

V ematikam * neyya, iccassa phdsu bliavissati . 

(vi) Sekham: satta-sekha-j ana- silam. I. 37 

Asekham : Arahatta-silam . 

Neva sekham 7i-dsekham: puthujjanai-silam. 

(vii) Bhaya-silam : through fear of wrong one does not N.O. 
commit evil. 

Dukkha-silam : through sorrow, one does not commit 
any evil. 

Moha-silam : go-sila or kiikkura-sila which one 
accepts. In that case he becomes a bull or a dog, 
or otherwise he falls into a hell.' 
(viii) Hhiam : tainted by grosser taints and soiled by discon- 
tent (asointvtthi). 

Majjhimam : tainted by smaller taints and associated 
with santutthi, 

Panitam: not tainted by anything and associated with 

Upa. adds that the fulfilment of the first conduces to 

the enjoyment of human pleasures, that of the 

second to the enjoyment of heavenly pleasures, 

and that of the last to the attainment of vimutti. 

(C) Catu-bbidham [Cf. B.I. 39 which differs in many respects 

from this.) 
(i) Hdnablwgiyam : maggassa antardye no vinodeti, I. 39 diff. 
uftluinavantehi janehi apakkumati, sancicca 
dpatbim, dpajjati, dpattim dpanno pa$iguhati, 

1. Cf. M. i. pp. 



[Chap. n. 14. (C) (i) 

1. 42-52 

Tliitiblu'igiyam: sampdditc sile appamatto hoti, 
upasamadassanam jiana na uppddeti. 

V isesabhdgiyam : paripiirita-sila-samddhisu appa- 
matto hoti, upasamadassanam pana na uppddeti. 

Nibbedhabhiigiyam : paripurit-a-.rila-samadhisu appa- 
matto hoti, upasamadassanena ca nibbedhabhd- 
giyo hoti. 

\) Bhikkhu-Silam sllam 
An upasampanna-silami- 
Oddta-vasana-silam . 

The same as in B. I. 40. 
where B. gives gahattha- 
stla which corresponds to 
the last expression here. 

(iii) Pakati-silam 

. S. a. with B. I. 41. 

(iv) Sila-sllam : sllam, akusala-sllam . 

Samudaya-silam : 

kusala-citta-samvithdnam kusala-silavi, aku- 
sala-citta-samutthdnam akusala-silam. 

Nirodha-silam : 

kusala-nlo,nuppattiya akusala-s'ilassa vupa- 
satno ; Arahattflpapattiyd kvsala-tilassa vvpa- 

Nirodfui-magga-patipada-silam : catldro sammappa- 
dhana. "When thus classified these four should be 
considered as sila and not vayamas. 

(v) (a) Pdtimokkhu-samvara-silam [B. I. 42-52.] Like B., 
Upa. gives the following passage from Vbh. 244 
to explain this slid. : 

Idlia bhikkhu patimohklia-samvara-samvuto viharati 
dedra-gocara-sampanno anumattesu vajjesu bhayadassdvl, 
samdddya sikkhati sikkhdpadesu. 

Chap. ii. 14. (C) (v) (b)] SILA-PARICCHEDA n 

Upa., like B., comments ou this whole passage. [It is worth 
noting how his comment differs from that of B. as well as from 
that in Vibhanga 245-248 ] 

Idhd ti imasmim satthu-sdsanc [lit. °dhamme]. 
Bhikkhu ti puthujjana-kalyunako; api ca sekho, I. 43 dif. 
asckho, dnenjadhammo. ' 

Pdtiin.ok.khan. ti sllavi, patit-thu, ddi, caranam, 
samyamo, samvaro, mokkho? aniba.ndjio, yamu- 
kham kusaldnavi dhammdnam samdpaUiyd. 

[It should be noted that the comment in Vbh. p. 24G on this 
passage is exactly the same except that there is no word 
corresponding to anibandho. Vis. I. 43 gives a comment which 
is quite different.] 

Samvaro ti kdyika-vdcasika-Lammassa avitikkamo. 
Samvuto ti Pdtimokkha-samvarcna vpeto. 
Viharati ti catu'-samvarejia saiavuto. 

1. 44-51 

Acdra-gocuTa-samimnno. The comment on these words 
substantially agrees with that given by B. 1.44-51 
in the quotations from Vibhanga 240-47. 

Anumattesu vajjesu bhayadassdvi. The comment 1. 52 
on this agrees with that of B.1.52. 

Samdddya sikkhati sikkhdpadesu. 

Kdni sikkhdpaddni ti vuccanti? Sattappabhcdo' 


Ajiva-pdrisuddhi-silam : micchdjivena 
Katamo micchdjivo? 


1. That is how I should like to emend the punctuation, takinz thia 
expre.s.on with "hat precedes rather than with what follows. For the 
expression bhikkhu analjcppatto see A. ii. 184. 

mokla m Viilhaae!i readS mukha '< 1 but in the foo^oto gives a variant 

3. Which four? 

4 Does tl.i s refer to the seven classes of the rules of Vinaya, namely 
7on?ciZ n9 ^T a • ? n '^ ta :, ni ^Oiya-^cittiya and vacUHy^ (treated 
as one class) patidesamya, sckhiya and adhikarana-samatha? Or does 
IM.H „ £? abSt "^, nCe fr °" the . * eve " Spattikkhandhas, detailed in 
pacittiyam, jxdidesamyam, dukkatum, dubbhusitan ti satta Hixxttiyo' ' 

I. 62-60 

12 V1MUTTIAIAGGA [Chap. ii. 14. (C) (v) (b) 

Kvhand (t#f &)' of three kinds : paccaya-pal.isevana- 
vasena, iiiydpathava-sena, sdmantajappanavasena 
[Roughly gives the substauce of B.1.6<-f0]. 
Lapand ■, 


Nippesikatd )■ T]l i s ^g^y agl . ees with B.1.62-G5. 

Ldbhetia Idbluini 
nijigimsanatd ) . 
Apt ca, micchdjtvo ti 

vehtddnam vd pattaddnmii va pupplui-phala-sindna- 
dantakattliaddnam* [cf. B. 1.44] and a list of other different 
kinds of micchdjiva, summarising the list in D.I.9. of words 
such as angam, nimittam, uppddam, etc. partly quoted by B. 
in 1.83. Upa. concludes: evamadiko ndndvidho micchd- 
jtvo. Micchdjiva pafivirati ti pdrisuddhi-silam. 

(c) Indriya-sarmvara-silam. Upa. explains this in a way 

which agrees with what B. explains in brief in 1.59. 
But the detailed explanation which is given by B. 
in 1.53-58 is quite different from that of Upa. who 
gives nine ways— some of which are not quite clear- 
in which this indriya-samvara can be accomplished. • 

(d) Catuppaecaya-sannissita-silam: affhahi dkarehi paf-i- 

sankhd yoniso pindajJdtam patisevati — 

1. neva davdya, na raaddya, 

2. tut mandandya na vibhiisandya, 

3. ydvadeva imassa kdyassa thitiyd, ydpandya, 
jtghacchd-pipdsdnam, uparatiyd (corresponds to 
B.'s vihimsvparatiyd 1.92 ), 

%tv purdnan ca >: vedancnn, patihankhami, navan 
ca vedanam na uppddessdmi, 
ydtrd ca me bhavissati, 

8. amavajjatd ca phdsuviharo ca ti. 
This whole passage is commented upon. The comment 
agrees with the general spirit of the comment of B. 
(1.89-94) though it is not without variations in detail. 

1. Ordinarily this word means kosajja or thhiamiddha: but there 
is no doubt that what is intended here is kuhana. 

2. Cf. Miln. 369-70; Maung-Tin, Expositor, i. 201. 





CnA... ii. U (C) ( v) (d) SILA-PAIUCCIIEDA „ 

These eight ways can be reduced to four paccavekkhanas: 

1. pahdtabba-paccavekkhand, covering the first two of 

the eight ways mentioned above ; 

2. paccaya ( # )-paccavekki,and, covering the third 

fourth and fifth ; 

ydtrd ( g £ )-paccavekkha.i}d, covering the sixth 
and seventh ; 

parittdnisamsa^accavekkhaya, covering the last. 
These four paccavekkhanas can further be reduced to three : 
antadraya-parivajjanam, ma.jjhi.mdy a ca patipadXya sevanam. 
Upa. explains these terms and in continuation of the same 
he gives the passage: pafisan/chd yoniso clvaram patisevati 
yavadeva sitassa patighdtdya, uvhassa patighdtdya,' damsa- 
^akasa-vdtatapa-sirimsapa-samphassdnam patighdtdya, ' ydva- 
devahtrt-koplna-paticchddanttham. B. has given the comment 
on this passage in I. 85-88. 

In the i same way regarding the acceptance of medical requi- 
sites While begging his food or taking his medicine or using 
his clothes or bedding, the mendicant should reflect, from day 
to day and from time to time, that he depends upon others for 
these things. 

The former teachers have said of (he four;kinds of paribhogas : 
[Cf. B.I. 125 where we have the same four kinds, 
although their explanation differs considerably.] 
Theyya-paribhogo : dussllassa paribhogo. 
hiaparibhogo: ahirikassa anottappassa micchd- 

jivikassa paribhogo. 
Ddyajja-paribhogo : atdpissa (or vfthdnavato pvri- 

sassa) paribhogo. 
Sdmi-paribhogo : oriydnam paribhogo. [Cf. B I. 
There are also two kinds of paribhogas : 

sa-hirottappassa apaccavekkhitvd 


pdpakesu citttippddesu nibbindan- 


I. 125 
but diff. 

aparisuddha : 
parisuddha : 

14 VIMUXTIMAGGA [Chap. ii. 11. (C) (v) (d) 

Upa. remarks about all the four kinds of silas, 1 mentioned 
in tlie fourfold division in this way : 

Viiiaya-samvara-sllam (substituted for pdtivioklchu-savivara 
mentioned above) adhiviattaya saddhdya pariqiuritam hoti, 
djiva-pdrisuddhi-sllain adhiviattena viriyena paripuritaTn, hoti, 
indTiya-samvara-silam adhiviattaya saddh&ya (? satiyd) 1 pari, 
piiritam hoti, paccaya-sevaiia-sttam adhiviattaya pannaya 
paripiiritarn, hoti. 

Upa. next tells us how djiva^pdrisuddhi follows Vinaya- 
samvara and how these two in turn follow indriya-samvara. 
Paccaya-sannissitaslla is the same as indriya-samvara-sila. He 
again tells us that Vinaya-samvara and djiva-parisuddhi are 
included under silakkhandha ; indriya-samvaTa and Vinaya- 
samvara under samddhikkhandlta; and catupaccaya-samiissita- 
sila under panndkhandha. 

15. Katliam slla-visuddhi samddinn.d holi? 

When a bhikkhu has first accepted the jhanadhammas, he 
should reflect whether he has in himself any of the seven 
kinds of (lapses). 3 If he sees in himself any Pdrdjikd offence, 
he is fallen from bhikkhu-dhamvia and he stays only in anupa- 

Former teachers have said, "If he sees that he has trans- 
gressed into a Sanghddisesa offence, he should ask pardon 
by a Sangha-kamma ( $fc <t ). If he has transgressed other 
offences he should get himself pardoned by another man. If 
he finds that he has transgressed into a micchdjiva, he should 
get a pardon appropriate to the case. Thus he should repent : 
'I shall not do it again.' [Cf. B. 1. 126, 'na puna evam karis- 
sorat ti.'] He resolves not to make any further transgression. 
By this sila-visuddhi, he does good actions again and again, 
removes evil, and every morning and evening resolves upon 
the purity of conduct. 

1. It should be noted that Upa. gives no fivefold division as B. gives 
in I. 131-142. 

2. Apparently there seems to be some inaccuracy in this reading of 
the word saddha where we should expect sati (;§;) but all the three 
editions I have consulted read in the 6ame way. Cf. B. I. 100. 

8. See note 2 on p. 11. 

imtitthd ? Dve 1. icy am. 


10. ( or rather fi= dedrassa. 
szlassat patiftha : 

( i ) dussilassa ddivavadasmnam, 
( ii ) silassa dnisamsa-dassaiuvm. 
The explanation shows that it corresponds to B.'s .nlavipat- 

In the various illustrations of the disadvantages of a man 
of evx conduct, he gives two similes. He compares this an 
to a thief in prison who finds no delimit in „„H , 
and t, a Canddla who finds no pleasure ft £££ *£«■" 
One must guard one's sila with utmost care, as an ant does 
ts ggs, or a ca-mar-i its tail, or a person his only son h 
mgle eye/ or as a magician his body, or a poor ma, L 
treasure or a sailor his ship. P U13 

him A11 i7t y h ° f ^^V^ «** ™ W- -course to by 
»»»• Ihus it becomes patr U hd ior jhana-sarndpatti. 

Vt. Vis I. 08, the first two hues of the stanza: 
Aifti t-a andam camari va valadhim 
Warn va put/am nayanam va ekakam. 

viya Tajje. 



[13k. 2.1.4-2.9a.4; Tak. 404b-40Gc. Cf.Via. Hud chapter.] 

The introductory paragraph telling lis why the yogdvaca.ra, 
after fulfilling the purity of conduct, turns to the 'dhutas' 
corresponds roughly to B.II.l. Then Upa. tells us that there 
are thirteen 2 dhutas classified as follows: 

Doe dhamma civara-patisamyuttd: pamsukiilikam, teclvari- 

pavca dhamma pindpdta-patisamyuttd : pindpdtikam, 
sapadanaciirikam, ekdsanabhojanam (B.'s 'ekdsanikam'), 
bhojane mattannutd* (B.'s patla-pindikam), khalu- 
■pacchab hattikaii ca. 
paiica dhamma sendsana-patisarp.yuttd : draiinikam, rukkha- 
mulikaan, abbhokdsikam, sosanikam, yathdsanthati- 

Itaii ca. 

ekam viriya-patisamyuttam. : nesajjikam. 

[This corresponds to B.II.8S, where we find exactly this 
same classification.] 

Upa. nest tells us how each of these dhutas is accepted, 
although, later also, he tells us the same thing in his treatment 
of each of the dhutas. 

1. On this subject see my article 'A fragment of a Tibetan Version 
of a Lost Indian Work' publiabed in the Proceedings Vol. (pp. 131-135) of 
the Seventh All-India Oriental Conference, Baroda (1933). 

2. Mvy.1128-1139 and Chin. Dhs. XXXIV (pp. 31, 118) give a list of 
twelve dhutangas only. The list in one does not, however, agree with that 
in the other. The former, as well as Puggala-panfiatti (p. 69), 
omits sapadanacSrikanga and pattapindikanga (or bhojane mattaiinuta of 
Vimuttimagga) while the latter omits yathasanthatikanga and pattapindi- 
kanga from the list of B., but both these tests give a new anga, called 
numantika or namatika for pattapindika of B. For the word namataka (or 
namatika or namantika) see Cullavagga of V. 11, 1; 19, 1; 27, 1; X. 10, 4; 
Vin. Comni. explains it as sattha-vethanakam, pilotikakharufam. Also see 
B.D. pp. 135-36 and the Tibetan Dictionary by S. C. Das, p. 836 under 

phyiii-pa fiJC'CJ- Namata is felt and nSmatikanga is the practice of 

wearing felt. It should also bo noted that the characters used in the 
Chin. Dhs. differ widely from those used in our text. 

3. This term is found in the Tibetan version also. See p. 133 of my 
article referred to above. 

Chap. in. 2] DHUTANI 17 

1. Kimattham pamsukulam samddiyati? 

He sees disadvantages in seeking his clothing from house- 
holders and sees advantages in the acceptance of this practice, 
which he does by thinking in this way: gahapati-ddnassa 
patikkhittattd pamsukulam samuddyami. 
Ko anisamso pamsukula-satnaddne? 

The answer roughly corresponds to B.II.21 and some espres- u. 21 
sions like corabhayena abhayatd, paribhoga-tanlidya-abhdvo 
can be traced. There are some additions by Upa. like ditpha- 
dhamma-sukha-vihdritd and so on. 

Katividham pamsukulam? Of two kinds: 

(i) that which is not owned by any one such as sosanikam, n. 15 
sankdracolami, pdpanikam, rathiyd-colakam, and a p,a " 
civara made of clippings picked up, washed, dyed and 
sewn together, 
(ii) things left over by common people such as clippings 
of a tailor, pieces eaten up by cattle or mice, (partly) 
burnt by fire, thrown away by people, coverings over 
a corpse, or garments of heretics aud so on. 
Katham samddiyati? , 

Sace bhikkhu gahapati-ddnann patikkhipati, tena pamsu- 
hulikam hoti. 
Katham bhedo? 

Sace bhikkhu gahapatiddna-m samddiyati, tena jiamsuku- 
likam bhinnam hoti. 

2. Katham tecivarikann samdd-iyati? 

If he has an additional clvwra., he should give it to others, 
should see ddinava in keeping it and should see the advantage in 
possessing, only the three civaras. He should think : ajjatagge 
atireka-civarassa patikkhittattd tecivarikann samddiydmi. 
Ko anisamso tecivarika-samddane? 

The answer roughly agrees with B.II.25 some of the espres- n 25 
sions from which can be traced here 6uch as appasamdTom- r,a- 
bhatd, santuftho kdya-pairihamkena. 

Kdni tlni civardni? Sanghdpi, Utta-Tasangam, Antardvdsakah 
ca. [These names are given in their Chinese translitera- 
Katham samdddnam? Sace bhikkhu aiireka-civaram na 

Katham bhedo? Sace bhikkhu ca\tutlho.m civaraon samddi- 


3. Katham pindapdtikam samadinnam hoti? 

The should see the disadvantages in this that 
if he accept invitations, it would interfere with his work and 
that he would come into contact with undesirable hhikkhus. 
Further he should see the advantages, and resolve : ajjatagge 
nimantana-patikkhepena jrindapdtika-dhammam samadiyami. 

Ko pindapdtikassa anisamso? The answer roughly cones- 
ponds to B. 11.29. While some expressions from B. like Icosajja- 
nivimathanatd, mdnappahdnam, Tasatanhdnivdranam. can clearly 
be seen, there are others like cdtuddisatd ( jft H ~)5 ) added. 
[B. gives this last as one of the advantages of abbhokdsi- 
kangam, II. G2.] 


interna ? 




Katham bhedo? 

Upa. mentions three kinds 
of nimantand 1 — for food, 
for going and for meeting 

\. — and adds that this prac- 
tice is accepted by avoiding 
invitations and violated by 

j accepting them. 

4. Katham sapadanacdTiliam samadinnam hoti? 

If he gets excellent food in the houses he visits, he does, 
not go again. He is away from doubtful places {sarJcitattha- 
nani). He knows their faults. He also knows the advantages of 
resolving: ajjatagge a-sapaddnacdrikam patikkhipdmi , sapadd- 
nacdrikam samadiyami. 

Ko anisamso sapaddnacdrike? The answer corresponds to 
B. 11.33 from which the expressions like achdndnabhinandand, 
candiipamatd. can be traced here. Upa. also adds many 

When a bhikkhu enters a village 
for alms, he starts from a house 
on the extreme border. If he goes 
from house to house, he fulfills 
this practice ; but if he passes 
over one house and goes to another, 
Katham, bhedo? J he violates it. 

Kim ndma 
cdrikam ? 

Katham saand- 
ddnam ? 

1. Cf. SN. 40 Aviantand hoti sahaya-majjhe, 
vdsc thane gamane carikaya. 


Katham ekdsanikassa 

Ke pariyantd? 

Katham bhedo? 

5. Kathavi ekdsanikam samddiyati? 

Ekdsanika means to be far from taking food at each meal at 
two or more different places. This is practised by good men and 
is something about which there cannot be any doubt ( %& H ). 

Ko anisamso ckdsanike ? The answer roughly corresponds II- 37 
to B.II.37, some expressions from which like appdbudhatd, 
appdtankatd phasu-vihdro can be traced here. 

Upa. speaks of the three pari- II. 36 
yantas, asanapariyanta, iidaka- 
pariyanta and bhojana+pariyanta 
mentioned by B. in 11.36. If he 
plans to sit twice for food, he 
■ violates eka-bhojana (— ^ ) which 
with the exception of liquid medi- 
cines is commended by the Buddha. 

[Cf. B. II. 36, Sa-ce maiiussd 

sappimaiidani dharanti, bhesajja- 
mattam eva vaffati.] 

6. Katham bhojana-mattaniiutd ( JJ tiB S & ) samddiyati? II. 39 

[Diff. from pattapiiidikangavi of B.II.39ff.] dlIL 

If he eats and drinks without moderation, he increases his 
bodily sloth and heaviness, always has greed, and never feels 
satisfied in his stomach. He knows the disadvantages of this 
and further knows the advantage of moderation in food which 
be takes with this resolve: ajjatagge loluppam pa-tikkhipitvd 
bhojaiia-mattaiiiiutam. samadiyami. 

Ko anisamso bhojana-mattafinutdya? [The answer differs II- 41 
from B.II.41.] diff - 

Moderation in food, not to allow the stomach to indulge in 
[desires for food] — for, eating too much increases diseases and 
gives no happiness — removes sloth (thlnamiddha-panudanam) 
and is recommended by good people. 

Katham samdddnam? 1 When he takes his food and drink 
he must know how much he needs, 
and must not take more than an 
\- average standard. He must cut 
off lack of moderation. Otherwise, 
the practice of this dhutanga is 

Katham bhedo? J violated. 


[Chap. at. 7 

7. Katham khahipacchdbhatlikam samddiyati? 

He cuts off all expectations and is far from atiritlabhojana. 
He knows the disadvantages of this and also sees the advanta- 
ges of a resolve like this : ajjatagge atiritta-bhojanam patik- 
khipdmi, khalu-pacchd-bhattikam samadiyami. 
Ko dnisamso khalu-paccha-bhattike? 

The answer partly corresponds to B. II. 45, from which 
pariycsandya abhavo can be traced here. 

Duvidlvam [klialu-pacchd-bhattikam] : 

aparicchinnantam (? ^ % *&)— If he receives additional 
food or gets it by a separate apology he should not 
eat it again. [Does this correspond to 15. II. 43: pavd- 
retvd puna bhojanam kappiyam karetva na bhunjitab- 

adhi(.thitdntam ( 3£ J£ i£ )— "When he has taken 
twenty-one niouthfuls (kabalas) he 6hould not take any 

When a mendicant is a khalu- 
pacchdbhattika, he cuts off atiritta- 
bhojana; so, if he takes the latter, 
he violates the practice. 

8. Katham drannikam samddiyati? 

He sees the disadvantages of dwelling in a noisy place, whore 
his mind comes into contact with five kinds of impurities (lit. 
dust g}| raja) and produces sankilitthasukha. If he lives in 
a noisy place, he is disturbed by the people coming and going. 
Further he sees the advantages in the practices of an draniiika, 
when he resolves : ajjatagge gdmantav ihdram patikkhipdmi, 
drannikam, samadiyami. 

Ko araHnassa The answer roughly corresponds 
to B. II. 49 : paiicadhanusatikam pacchimam. 

Katham samdddnam,? By giving up gdma-majjhe vihdra. 

Katham bhedo? By resorting to gdma-majjhe vihdra. 

9. Katham rukkhamulikam samddiyati? 

He abandons a covered place (channam), does not accumu- 
late or store up, removes tanhd or pariyesand, and knows their 
disadvantages. He also sees the advantages of a rukkhamulika 
and resolves : ajjatagge channam patikkhipdmi, rukkha-mula- 
viharam samadiyami. 

Katham samdddnar 

Katham bhedo? 

Ko dnisamso rukkhmiilike? 

The answer corresponds to B. 11.58, some expressions from n. 53 
which like sendsana-macchera-kamvidrdmatduam abhavo, deva- r.a. 
tdhi sahavdsitd can be found here. 

Ke rukkhd sevitabbd? Such trees should be used, that by 
day lime, the shadows of the trees may reach the place occupied 
by him and such trees as would not shed leaves on his place 
when it is windy. 

Ke rukkhd na sevitabbd? One must keep away from II. 56 
dangerous, decayed trees, trees, hollow or eaten up by worms, 
or trees resorted to by demons or spirits. Cf. B. 11.56, where B. 
enlists different kinds of trees to be avoided wherein he 
mentions cetiyarzikklia. 

Katham samdddnam? By avoiding covered places. 

Katham bhedo? If he stays in covered places, he breaks the 

10. Katham abbhokdsikavt samddiyati? 

He does not like a place with a roof on, nor does lie like to 
sit under a tree, nor does he like a place where things are stored 
up. He knows the disadvantages of these and further sees the 
advantages of an abbhokdsika. He thinks : ajjatagge nivdsam 
n.a sddiydmi, patikkhipdmi, abbhokdsikam samadiyami. 

Ko dnisamso abbhokdsikassa? 

The answer partly corresponds to B. II. 62, some of the u. 62 
expressions from which like thrna-middha-panudanam, migd l ' a - 
viya, nissangatd etc. can be traced here. 

Katham samdddnam? By resolving : channan ca rukkhamu- . 
Ian ca patikkhipdmi, abbhokdsikan ca samadiyami. 

Katham bhedo? If he stays in a covered place, or under a 
tree, he violates the practice. 

11. Katham sosdnikam samddiyati? 

If he resorts very little to places other than susana, then 
there is little pamdda, and he becomes afraid of evil (papa). 
He knows the disadvantages of resorting to places other than 
svsdna, and the advantage of being a sosdnika. He thinks : 
ajjatagge na-susdna m pafikkhipdmi, sosdnikam samadiyami. 

Ko dnisamso sosdnikassa samdddne? 

The answer to this roughly corresponds to B. II. 67, several 11.67 
expressions from which can be traced here. For instance, we 
have marana-satiyd patildbho, appamdda-vihdritd, kdmardga- 
vinodanam, amanussanam garubhdvaniyatd. 


II. 71 

• iMnnuauM |Uh*»'- m. 11 

Katham sosumkam samadinnam hoti? Kattha vasilabbam? 

When he goes to a cemetery, he must first note the places 

where there is constant crying, or constant smoke, or constant 

fire, and if he wants to stay in the cemetery, he must stay in 

places other than these. 

Katham samdearitabbam? When a bhikkhu stays there, 
he must not build there any room, nor make any bed, nor should 
he stay in a place in the direction from which the wind blows, 
nor in a place against the current of the wind. [There are some 
details in this connection, which are not found in B.] 

Katham samdddnavi? By abandoning places other than 

Katham bhedo? By living in places other than susana. 

12. Katham yatha-santhatihami samddiyati? 

He rejoices not in what people are greedy for, and does not 
bother others so as to make people avoid him. He knows the 
defects of this kind of life and sees the advantages of a yathd- 
santhatika. [He resolves] : ajjatagge sendsana-loluppam patik- 
khipdmi, yathd-santhatikam samddiydmi. 

Ko dnisamso yatliasanthatike? [The answer differs consider- 
ably from B. 11.71.] One seeks contentment about a dwelling- 
place, loves a solitary place, cuts off delight in the acceptance 
of many things, is highly respected by people and so on. 

Katham samdd-dnam? By removing greed for a dwelling 

Katham bhedo? By resorting to a comfortable place. 

13. Katham nesajjikam samddiyati? 

By knowing the disadvantages of drowsiness and sleep, and 
knowing the advantages of being a nesajjika. He thinks: 
ajjatagge seyyam patikkhipami, nesajjikm samddiydmi. 

Ko crvisamso nesajjike? [The answer differs from B. 11.75.] 

He cuts off sloth, removes bodily illness, is away from 
passionate contact, delights in diminishing sleep, has constant 
solitariness and quiet, and is able to produce jhdna-visesa. 

-Katham samdddnam? By cutting off sleep. 

Katham bhedo? If he sleeps, he would be violating the 

Obap. m. ] DHTJTANI '23 

Now follows a small section on Jf fl> which purports to 
enumerate cases of convenience or emergency, when a certain 
laxity in the observance of these practices may be allowed ; 
as for instance, he may take some extra pieces of cloth as towels, 
or for bandages of wounds ; or, even if he has taken up the 
practice of a sapaddnacdrika, he should avoid elephants or horses 
that may be coming in his way. Seeing a candala, he should 
cover his begging-bowl. 'Following one's dcariya or upajjhdya' 
is also mentioned as an occasion for exception. He may get 
up from the place where he is taking his food, when he sees 
his teacher coming or any guest-mendicants coming, although 
he has taken up the practice of taking food on one and the same 
seat only. [B. also has referred to such cases from time to 
time. See, for instance, 11.31,35.] 

Under these circumstances, even though these practices 
are violated, no sin of violation is attached. But no exception is 
allowed in the cases of a bhojana-mattannii and a khahtpaccha- 
bhattika. Also in the case of a nesajjika ; although some say 
that, in this case, an exception may be allowed when a mendicant N.C. 
has to get up from his seat for clearing his nose. 

TJpa. next tells us how these dhutas can be condensed in- II. 87 
to just eight. Khalupacchdbhattikatd includes bhoj ana-matt an- 
nutd and ekdsani/catd, while the practice of an dranilika in- 
cludes the practices of a rukkha-malika , abbholidsika and 
sosanika. [It should be noted that the details regarding this 
as given by B. in 11.87 are different.] Upa. supports this 
statement by a quotation from what he calls the Abhidhamma. 

These eight can further be reduced to three : the practices 
of an uraiinika, pamsukulika, and pindapdtika. 

Upa. discusses the following questions regarding the dhutas 
in general : 

(i) Kena vuttdni dhutangdni? 
Terasa dhutdni Bhagavatd vuttdni, Bhagavatd parlnattd- n. 78 
ni. In continuation of this, Upa. says that we cannot call these 2jJ*^ w 
dhutas kusala, or akusala, or abydkata. For it is possible 
for a person of evil disposition not to give up evil thought or 
evil desires and to produce adhammas and so it will be seen that 
the dhutangas may not be kusala. Now in Vis. II. 78, 79, B. 
combats the views of those who say (i) that the dhutangas can 


(Chap. in. 

be called husala, akusala or abydkata; or (ii) that they are 
kusalattikavinimmutta. Upatissa's view seems to be identical 
with the latter, which, says Dhammapala the Commentator, 
was the view of the adherents of the school of Abhayagiri. 
[Abhayagirivdsike sandhdydha. Te hi dhutangam paiinattl ti 
vadanti.] 1 

(ii) Dhutassa katividhd dhamma? 
Due dhamma: alobho ca amoho ca. This agrees with B. II. 
83, 84. Upa. also gives the quotation from A. iii. 219 in a 
slightly varied form, while it is merely referred to by B. 

(iii) Rdgddicaritesu ko dhutam sevati? 

Rdgacarito ca moha-carito ca. Upa. definitely says that the 
practice of dhutas is not helpful to a dosa-carita. It is positively 
harmful to him just as a hot drink is harmful to a man who is 
suffering from the illness of fever. But he also refers to an alter- 
native view that the practices of an araiinika, and rukkha-muhka 
are appropriate for a dosa-carita, which B. also has mentioned 
in II. 8G as an alternative view : drannikanga-rukklia-muli- 
kangapatisevand vd dosacaritassdpi sappdyd. 

(iv) Kati dhutdni kdla-pariyantdni? 
The three dhutas, those of a rukkharmulika, abbhokdsika and 
sosdnika, are restricted to eight months. The Buddha has 
allowed a sheltered place for the time [of the rainy season] 
when a place of safety is required. 

(v) Ko dhuto ca dhutavddo ca?:[Cf. B. II.81-S2 where 
the explanations are quite different.] 2 

(a) Dhuto ca dhuta-vado ca: Araha ca dhuta- 
samanndgato ca. 

(b) Dhuto ca na dhuta-vddo ca : Araha, dhutanga- 
samdddne-na pana na samanndgato . 

(c) Na dhuto ca dhuta-vddo ca : sekho ca. puthujja- 
no ca dhutas amadanena samanndgato. 

i. Sec pp. 38-39 of my article 'Vimuttimagga and the School ol 
Abhayagirivihara in Ceylon', printed in the Journal of the University 
of Bombay, Vol. V, part III, Nov. 1936, pp. 35-40. 

2. On the subject-matter of tuis paragrapn as well as of the chapter, 
also see my article 'Dhutangas' in the Indian Historical Quarterly, March 
1937, Vol. XIII, no. 1, pp. 44-51. 

Chap, m.] DUUTA.N1 ^ 

(d) Na dhuto ca na dhuta-vddo ca : sekho ca 
puthujjano ca dhuta-samuddnena na saman- 
ndgato. 1 
Dhutdni kim-lakkhanani, kim-rasdni, kim-paccupatthd- 

Appicchatd-lakkhandni, santuUhi-rasdni, idamatthitd- 
Or else, 

Nillolup2>a~lakkhanani, anddinava-rasdni, 2 aparihdni-pac- 

Kdni ddi-majjlia-pariyosdn-dni? 

SamddHnam ddi, patisevanamajjho, somanassam anto. 

1. It will be noted that these explanations are simpler and more 
uatural than those given by B. in II. 81-82. 

2. Tib. supports anOdtnava / %ZJ' s &< l J\%\'5$ c s'Z,$C ) 




[Bk. 2.9a.5— 2.14a.7; Tak. 406c.-408a. Cf. Vis. III. 1-25.1 

When the yogavacara with pure conduct has practised dhutas, 
he should cultivate samadhi. - 

Upa., as usual, sets up a number of questions which he 
answers and thus treats the subject. Here, however, he does 
not take up the questions in the same order. He changes the 
order in one place at least. All the questions except the last one, 
'Ratham samadhi uppddetabbo?' are answered by him in this 
chapter. The last one is answered in subsequent chapters. 

1. Ro samadhi? It is the concentration of the mind, already 
purified, on an object, so that it is not distracted. [Cf. B. III. 3] 
Upa, gives another alternative definition supporting himself by a 
quotation from the Abhidhamma which is none but the definition 
of samadhi given in Vibh. 217, Dhs. §§ 11, 15, 24, 287, 570. 

2. Rani tassa lakkhana-rasa-paccupatthdna-padatthdndni) 
What Upa. says in this connection does not agree with B's. 

statement given in III. 4. 

3. Ro puggalo samddahissati ? 

He who can hold his thoughts in a perfect, balanced state, 
like a man who keeps himself well-balanced while carrying 
the bowl of oil [Cf. S. v. 170 for this simile.], or like the four 
horses that pull the chariot with equal force. 

4. Jhdiia-vimokkha-samddhi-samdpattinam fcim ndndkara- 


Jhdnan ti pathamajjhdnddini cattdri jhdndni. 
Vimokkho ti 'ajjliattam rxtpasaniii bahiddhd riipdni 

passati' ti ddayo atlha vimokkhd. 
Samadhi ti savitakka-savicdrddayo tayo samddhayo. 
Samdpatti ti nava anupmbba-samapattiyo. 

[This corresponds to the explanation of these terms in Vbh. 
342, 343.] 

Upa. also goes into the details of the interpretation of the 
word jhdna, the first interpretation of which corresponds to B.'s 
interpretation : drammana-vpanijjhdnattd in IV. 119. 

5. Rati dmsamsd? Cattaro : [Cf. 13. XI. 120-124, where 
we have five mentioned, the lost of which nirodhdm- 
samsa is not mentioned here.] 
(i) 'Ditthadhamma-sukhaviharita. When a man attains XI , i0 . 24 
samadhi, he finds delight and experiences pabbajjd- mentions 
sukha. Upa. also gives a quotation in which the 
Blessed One is speaking of the days he spent in the 
state of samadhi, while he was practising the 
niyantha practices, for seven days and nights.' 
(ii) Vipassandya sukha kiriyd. When a man's mind is 
free from nivaranas, and when he has attained the 
pliability of mind by the training of samadhi, he 
can have a penetrative insight into the khandhas, 
ayatanas, dhatus, and so on. 
(iii) Abhiiind-sacohikiriyd. One can attain the five mira- 
culous powers of iddhividha, dibbasota, paracitta- 
vijanand, pubbenivdsdnussati, and dibbacakkhu. 
[See Chapter Nine, p. 86] 
(iv). Bluiva-sampatti [corresponding to bhava-visesa of 
B. XI. 123]. The man who has attained samadhi does 
not fall back from it [Cf. samddhimhd na pari- 
hdyati in B. XI. 123], but does attain a fruit. He 
attains, if he does not become an asehha, ruparvpa- 
bhxcva-visesa, as the Blessed One has said -.Pathamam 
jhdnam parittam bhdvetvd Brahma-pdTuajjatam 

6. Rati dhammd samadhissa antarayakard? Attha dhdmma: NO 

Kdmacchando, bydpado, thlna-middham, uddhac- 
ccm, vicikiccha, avijja, piti-sukhavirahitata 1 , 
sabbe ca pdpaka dhammd. 

7. Rati dhammd samadhissa hetu? Atlha dhammd? : sa- 

upanissayatd ( ? fe B ), pabbajjd (? Hi ) 4 , pahdnam 

1. Is this a correct representation? Cf. M. i. 04 (Sutta no. 14). 
where the Buddha is represented as saying to the Niganthas that he 
could live in a state of sumOdhi even for seven days. 

2 - M ^ $1 Tlle mean '"8 ' 8 not q uite clear- 

3 I am not sure about the accuracy of the eight dhammas given 
here, as the sense is likely to change with a different punctuation. 

4. Cf. Ja i. 14, where among the eight requirements given for 

the successful accomplishment of one's desire, are mentioned hetu 

pabbajja etc. 




[Chap, iv. 

III. 11 

( #1, nivarana?iam?). adosa, vijjd, avikkhepo, sable 
kusald dhammd cittdbhippamodakd, sabbe kusald 
dhammd dhamma-ndnasamuppadakd ca. 

8. Kati samddhissasamb 1 drd} Sattavidhd: 

Aneka-vihitam sllam, santuUhitd, indriyesu gutta- 
dvdratd, bhojane mattannutd, rattiyd pdthame maj- 
jhime pacchime ydme amiddhatd, 1 niccam sati- 
sampajanriam, parviveka-vihdro oa. 

9. Katividho samddhi ? 

(i) Duvidho ■. [Cf. B. III. 7 which differs considerably.] 

(a) Lokuttaro: ariya-phaleiia samadhigato. 
Lokiyo : seso ; 

Ayam lokiyo samddhi sdsavo, samyojaniyo, 

ganthaniyo, sankilesiko ;' vutta-vipariydyena 

lokuttaro . 

(b) Micchd samddhi: akusala-cittekagyald; pahdtabbo 

va [samddhi] . 
Sammd samddhi: kusala-cittekaggatd; bhdvetabbo 
va [samddhi] . 

(c) Upacdra-samddhi-.tassa tassa jhdnassa pubbabhdge 

[pavatto] . 
Appand- samddhi: gotrabhu-anantard. [B. I1I.G 
says: parikammdnantard.y 
(ii) Tividho : 

(a) Savitakka-savicdro : pathama-ni jhdnam. ] Corre3- 
Aviitakka-paritta-vicdro ■. dutiyaj jhdnam. iP on ds 
Avitakka-avicdro : sesajjhdndni. 12 

(b) paihamaj- 

jhdnan ca dutiyaj jliunan ca. 

Sukhena saha uppanno : tatiyaj- 

Upekkhdya saha uppanno : catut- 

Corresponds to 

r B. III. 12. 

1. In Pali books this is generally referred to as jagaHy&nuyoaa. 

2. See Dhs. § 584. 

3. See B. IV. 74, XXI. 130, 134, 135 from which it appears that 
the words pankamma, upacara, anuloma and gotra'ohu did not signify 
much distinction. 

Chai-. iv. 9. (iii). (c)] bA.UADHI-PAlUCCHEDA 2! 

(c) Kusalo : Ariyamaggo ; sekhehi ca puthujjanehi ca 
bhdvito rupdvacara-arupuuacara-samddhi ca. 
Vip&ko : Ariyaphalam ; sekhehi ca puthujjanehi ca 

uppdditd rupdrupdvacard dhdtu ca. 
Kiriyd: Asekhena samdjyaimo rupdrupavacaru- 
samddhi. [See foot-note 2 on the next page.] 
(iii) Catubbidho: 

(a) Kdmdvacaro : tena tena dcinno 

samdpatbi-dcdro . 
Rupdvacaro : cattdri jhdndni. 
Ariipdvacaro :oatldro arupdva- 

card samddhayo, ktisala- 

kammavipakd ca. 
Apariydpanno : cattaro maggd 

ca cattdri phalani ca. 

(b) Dukkhd patipadd dandhdbhinnd 
Dukkhd patipadd khippdbhinnd 
Sukhd patipadd dandhdbhiiiiid 
Sukhd patipadd khippdbhinnd 

(c) Faritto samddhi parittdram- 

Paritto samddhi appamdna- 

Appamdno samddhi panttd- 

Appamdno samddhi appamdnd- 

ra mm alio 

III. 23 

Cf. B. III. 23. 

The explanation 
generally agrees 1 
with that of B. in 
III. 14-19. 

The explanation 
quite different 
Y from that given in 
B. III. 20. 

(d) C 'ha ndor samddhi 
Citta- samddhi 

■ Agrees with B. III. 24. 

111. 14-19 

III. 20. 
expla- ' 

III. 24 

(e) Atthi samcdhi Buddhchi samadhigato, na sdvakehi: 
Mahdkaruna samddhi, Ya.maka-pdtihdriya~samd- 
dhi 2 ca. 
Atthi samddhi sdvakehi samadhigato, na Bxiddhehi: 

sekhaphala- samddhi. 

1. Cf. Mvy. 1245-48 where the Chinese characters are entirely 
different from those given in our Chinese Text. 

2. Also see p. 80. The Hanoi of these two names are also given in 
Vim. Bk. 6. 14. 5-6, Ps. i. 3 and explained in Ps. i. pp. 125-26. 



[Chap. iv. 9. (iii). (e) 


Att/ii saviddhi sdvakehi samadhigato, Buddliehi ca : 
nava anupubba-sarnddhl , asekha-phala-samddhi ca. 

Atthi samddhi ncva Buddliehi samadhigato na 
sdvakehi ca: Asaiitii- saviddhi. 1 

Atthi samddhi uppdddya, na nirodhdya: kdmdvacare 

kusalo akusalo samddhi. 
Atthi samddhi nirodhdya na uppdddya: catu-ariya- 

7/1 ag g a- samddhi. 
Atthi samddhi uppdddya ceva nirodhdya ca: sekh- 

puthujjananam riipdrupdvacara-kusala-samddhi. 
Atthi samddhi neva uppdddya na nirodhdya ca: 

sabbaphala-samddhayo , kiriya-samddhi 2 ca. 
(g) Pathamam jhdnam 

Y- Agrees with B. III. 21. 


Dutiyam jhdnam 
Tatiyam jhdnam 
Catuttham jhdnam 

(iv) Pancavidho : 

(a) Referring to the five trances, i. e. one more added 
to the four just mentioned above. This corres- 
ponds to B. III. 25. Upa. further discusses this 
fivefold division and says that this division is 
made with reference to the two kiud3 of men who 
have mastered the first jhdna — one to whom only 
vitakka appears as gross, another to whom both 
vitakka and vicara appear as gross. 
(6) Pancanga-samdpatti : [Sec pancangika sammdsamddhi 
in Vbh. 334, VbhCm. 420-21 ; Ps. i. 48. PsCm. i. 
125-26 ; D. iii. 277, DCm. iii. 1059 ; A. iii 25-27, 
ACm. iii. 235.] 

Piti-pharanatd ($J) 3 : pathame jhdne dutiye jhane ca. 

Sukha-pharanatd : Ksu jhdnesu. 

Ceto-pharanata : paracittandne. 

Aloka-pharanatd : d-ibbacakkhu-abhinndya. 

Paccavekkhand-sannd ($§): tamhd tamhd samddhi- 
mhd vulthitassa paccavekkand-iidne. [Is *.B used for 

1. See p. 55; Mvy. 1987; also see p. 53 for (Udflfti gods. 

2. Cf. Kiiiya-jhana, Vibhanga, pp. 268, 281, 282. 

3. The Chinese character jjg is used both for paripuri as well as 
pharayata. See Mvy. 4304, 6334, and 6491. 

Chap. iv. 9. (iv). (c)] SAAf aDHI-PAIUCCHKDA 31 

JjQ which would correspond to nimitta of the 
Pali texts? Such confusion of characters with 
similar sounds is not. rarely met with in the 
(c) Pancandnika-sammHsamddhi: [See Vbh. 334, VbhCm. 
Ayam samddhi paccuppannasukho ceva dyatt.u ca jf.c. 
sukhavipdko ti paccattam yevaiianam upjiajjati. 

Ayam samddhi ariyo nirdmiso ti... 
Ayam samddhi sappaniielii [more akin to the reading 
of the VbhCm: mahdpurisa-sevito] patisevito ti... 
Ayam samddhi samto panito potippassaddhiladdho 
ekodibhdvddhigato... [some more expressions are 
added which seem to be repeating what has been 
already said and others which do not agree with 
the readings of Vibhanga and its Commentary 
but they seem to suggest that this samddhi does 
not vanquish birth, death or egoism.] 
Imam samadhim sato va samdpajjoti, [imasmd samd- 
d-himlid] sato va utthahati ti paccattam yeva 
ndnam uppajjati. 
Further, one has to properly understand the kammatthdna. 
He should understand whether the drammana is hinti, majjhima 
or panlta. 

Thus one should know that there are many kinds of 
samadhis, but that all of them are included under four. 

III. 61 



[Bk. 2. 14a.8— 2.19.3 (end of Bk.2) ; Talc. 408a-409b. 
Cf. Vis. 111.61-73.] 

Upa. takes up the last of the questions (No. 10) set up by him 
in the last chapter : Katham samddhi uppddetabbo? 

The beginner in the practice of meditation (ddikammika), 
wishing to produce jhdna-samdd-hi, should seek the best kalydna- 
mitta. For, he would become his guide, friend and relative 
taking every possible care of him. If he does not find such a 
friend, he becomes like an elephant without a goad, wandering 
alone, without anybody to direct, wherever it pleases him. 
This kalydnamitta is compared by Upa. to a skilful cart-driver, 
helmsman, doctor, father, mother or a teacher. 

Who is parama-kalydna-mitta? One should search for a man 
who is well-versed in the Sutta, Abhidhamma and Vinaya, well- 
versed in understanding different kinds of kamma (? ffc ), who 
has attained the kusala-jhdna-abhinnd and who has an insight 
into the Four Truths. 

If he does not find such a man, he should take recourse to 
one who is endowed with the seven qualities which are exactly 
the same as are mentioned in the following stanza of B. III. 61 : ' 
Piyo garu bhdvanlyo vatta ca vacanakkhamo 
gambhiraii ca katham kattd no ca'tthane nivesaye. 

Upa. comments on all the seven qualities mentioned here. 
While commenting on the last phrase : no ca'tthane nitvesaye, 
Upa. mentions kula, iidti, dvdsa, kamma, gana and gantha as 
the afthanas which should be avoided. [These are only sis of 
the ten palibodhas mentioned by B. in 111.29.] Such a man 
he should seek. 

Now comes the next question aa to how. he should seek such 
a man. 

Katham pariyesitabbo? If he knows that such and such 
a person living in such and such a place has the necessary 

1. See A. iv. 132, Netti p. 164, Petakopadesa p. 96, (Bur. ed. 163). 

VUA1-. v.j lvAi^XAWA-lUiTTA-rAKlVJfiSANA 33 

qualifications and is highly respected, and if he be a jhdna- 
cariya, he should go to him. If he does not personally know of 
such a person, he should make inquiries with others about such 
a man, his country, his residence, his jhdndcariya, and so on, 
and then go to him and express his wish. 

The text goes on giving various details as to how he 
should behave while he is waiting upon his teacher. In this 
connection, there is one sentence which gives a very appropriate 
simile to express the behavior of this man while he is living 
with his teacher. 'He should not have any feelings of contempt, 
but, on the contrary, like a newly-married bride going to wait 
upon her father-in-law, and mother-in-law, should have hiri 
and ottappa and should receive instructions.' 

If he sees a teacher of the Vinaya or of the Abhidhamma, or 
of the dhutas, he should try to learn things about them from 
him. If he sees a jlvdndcariya coming, and even if he be younger 
than himself, he should take his begging-bowl and clothes from 
his hand [as a mark of respect for him] , and wait upon him. 
As soon as he finds a suitable opportunity, he should express 
his intention to him. He should abide by the instruction given 
to him. 

The chapter closes with a number of gathas attributed to 
the Buddha, summarising what one should avoid and what one 
should practise. 1 

1. Though the subject-matter in this chapter and in B. III. 61-73 
is the same, still there is a wide divergence in the method of handling 
the subject. 

Ill 74 
refers to 


[Bk. 3.1.4-3.6.9; Tak. 409b-411a. Cf. Vis. III.74-102.J 

The dcariya observing the behavior of his pupil for several 
days should prescribe a kammatthana suitable to his disposition 
[cariya £f] 

There are fourteen kinds of cariya: 


[B. in III. 74 refers to 
the fourteen cariyas 
but accepts only six, 
corresponding to the 
first six of these.] 









V itakka-cariyd 


Rdga-mo lia-cariyd 


Sama-bhdga-cariyd 1 ( ^ fa ff ) : rdga, dosa, 
and moha taken equally together. 




Sama-bhdga-cariyd ( ^ fa ft ) > saddhd, 

buddhi, and vitakka taken equally 


Further, several other cases may be made through tanhd, 

ditthi 2 and mana 3 [cf. B.III. 78] but they may not be considerd 

as quite distinct in meaning. From these fourteen cariyas, we 

get fourteen classes of men such as rdga-carita, dosa-carita 

and so on. 

These fourteen can be reduced to seven. Nos. 1 and 4 can 
become one and the same. So also, Nos. 2 and 5, 3 and 6, 7 and 
11, 8 and 12, 9 and 13, and 10 and 14. 

1. Cf. samaukagacarita of Pet. VII. p. 157 (Bur. ed. p. 190); also 
'Tattha r&ga-dosa-moha-samabhdgacaritassa puggalassa visesabhagiyam 
jhanam hoti' in Pet. VII. p. 162 (Bur. ed. p. 192). 

2. Cf. Sphu(&rihabhidharmakoiavydlthya (Bibl. Buddhiea XXI) p. 55, 
(comment on I. 26) where we have a list of twelve kinds of people possessing 
different cariyas including these two. 

Chap, vi] 


Why is it so? The reasons given are in substantial agree- 
ment with those given b> B. in Vis. III. 75-77, and many of the 
sentences from those paragraphs can be traced here word for 

Of these seven classes of men, nos. 1, 2 and 7 have khippd 
patipadd, while nos. 3, 8 and 9, and the class made of nos. 
10 and 14 have dandhd patipadd. These seven classes can further 
be reduced to three, rdga-carita, dosa-carita and moha-carita, in 
so far as their mula-kilesa ( ^ M IS ) is. concerned. 

The following questions about these cariyas are set up and 
answered : 

(i) Eta tis so cariya kinniddnd? The answer is [Cf. III. 
79-82.] : 
(a) Pubbdcinna-niddnd: pubbe kira itthappayoga- 

subhakammabahulo (almost word for word 

the same as in B. III. 80.) 
(6) Dhdtu-niddnd : The same as B. 111.81, the first 

half of which refers to dhatus. 

(c) Dosa-niddnd: (<) semhddhiko rdgacarito, pittd- 

dhiko dosa-carito, vdtddhiko moha-carito. Or, it 

is said : (/?) semhddhiko moha-corito, vdtddhiko 


[In Vis. III. 81, B. refers to a view which corresponds to 

this view, except that he points out in III. 82, that according 

to this view, only rdga and moha are explained, while in this 

text, we find the mention of all the three, rdga, dosa and moha. 

He also points out that the two (< and i>) exactly opposite views 

about the rdga-carita and moha-carita make the position of 

those who hold this view untenable. B. ascribes this view to 

'Ekacce' which Dhammapala in his comment explains as 

follows: 'Ekacce' ti Upatissattheram sandhdya aha. Tena hi 

Vimuttimagge taihd vuttam', (p. 113 Burmese edition. 1 )] 

(it) Katham ca janitabbain, ayam puggalo rdgacarito, ay am 

dosacarito, ayam moha-carito ti? 
The answer is that all these things can be known in seven 

(a) Arammanato ( gl $ ). This substantially agrees 
with dassanddito of B. III. 94. 

1. Of P. G. Mundyne Pitaka Press 1909; but Zabu Meit Swe Press 
ed. (1913) p. 105; Sinhalese edition p. 96. 

III. 79-82 
almost id. 

B. refers 
to these 

s.d. butB. 
refers to 
this view 
in III. 81. 

III. 9 4. 


[CnAr. m. 

HI. 95 

III. 88, 
91, 93. 

B. III. 

(6) Kilesdto. This corresponds to dhammappavattito of 
B. III. 95; but the names of the dhamnias ascribed 
to each of the three classes of men do not always 
agree. Upa. mentions only five evil dhamnias for each 
of these three classes of men, while B. mentions 
several dhamnias for each of the sis classes he accepts. 

(c) Gamanato. This substantially agrees with B. III. 88, 
excepting the quotation from the Commentary on 
the Magandiya-sutta to which there is nothing corres- 
ponding in this text. 

(d) Civara-papuranato. This gives only a general descrip- 
tion of the nature of clothes liked by each of these 
three kinds of men. 

(e) Bhojanato. Substantially agrees with B. III. 93. 
(/) Kiccato. Substantially agrees with B. III. 91. 

iff) Seyyddito. Substanally agrees with B.III. 91 and 
a part of iriydpathato in III. 88. 
(Hi) Katham clvaram pdrvpati, bhojanam bhunjati, katham 
assa sendsanam, gocaro, iriydpatho ca ? The answer 
follows seriatim : 

(a) Civara-samidddnam. This corresponds to the passage 
regarding nivdsana-pdpurana and drammana in B. 
III. 97-101. 

(b) Bhojandhdra. This roughly corresponds to the re- 
marks on ydgubhatta-hhajjaka in B. III. 97, 100. 

(c) Senasana. This corresponds to the remarks ou send- 
sana in B. III. 97, 99. It is interesting to note a re- 
mark of Upa. that a moltacarita should stay in the 
vicinity of his dcariya. 

(d) Gocara. This roughly corresponds to the remarks on 
bhikkhdcaramagga and bhikkhdcdro.-gdma in B. III. 
97-100. There is another interesting remark made by 
Upa. that a ragacarita should go into the village 
facing the sun, a dosacarita with his back towards 
the sun, and a mohacarita any way he pleases. 

(e) Iriydpatha. Upa. tells us what different postures are 
resorted to by the three classes of men. He mentions 
that a dosacarita is given more to sitting and lying, 
while the -mohacarita to walking. 

fJnKT. VIJ L AM 1 A-l' AlUWllbllA 0< 

Upa. adds pakinnakakathd. 

A ragacarita believes in agreeable objects, a dosacarita in N.C. 
disagreeable ones, and a mohacarita sees nothing in which he 
can believe. A ragacarita is like a slave, a dosacarita like a 
master, and a mohacarita like poison. A ragacarita loves colour 
(vanna), a dosacarita loves finding fault, and a moltacarita 
loves idleness. 1 

1. This chapter on the whole reveals a remarkably close agreement 
between Vis. and Vim., perhaps because as B. has said in III. 96, both of 
them are following the same acariya-mata [kevalam acariya-mafanusarena 
vuttam]. Ther6 are several passages which are found word for word in 
both the texts. 



[Bk. 3.6.10— 3. lla-2; Tak. 411a-412b. Cf. Vis. III.105-121.] 

Having observed the cariya of bis pupil, the acariya should 
prescribe the thirty-eight karumatthanas and also instruct him 
in two [more], as would befit his cariya. Which are the thirty- 
eight kammatthanas? 

1-10 Dasa kasind: paphavi, apo, tejo, vayo, nila, pita, 

lohita, oddta, dkdsdyatana and vinndndyatana. 1 
11-20 Dasa asubhd: uddhumdtaka, vinilaka, vipubbaka, 
vicchiddaka, vikkhdyitaka, vikkhittaka, halavik- 
khittaka, lohitaka, pxilavaka, and atthika. 
21-30 Dasa anussatiyo : BvddMnussati, dhammdnussati, 
sanghdnussati, siJdnussati, cdgdnussati, d&vatdnus- 
sati, maranasati, kdyagatdsati, dndpdnasati, and 
31-34 Cattdri appamdna-cittdni [or, catasso appamaiind, 
corresponding to B's. brahmavihdrd] : mettd,- 
karund, muditd and upekkha. 
35 Catudhatuvavatthdnam 1 [Mark the change in the 

order from that in Vis. 
III. 105, according to 
which the order of these 
kammatthanas after no. 
34, would be 9, 10, 37, 38, 
36, 35 of those given in 
this list, while dloka-kasi- 
na and paricchinndkdsa- 
ka-sina are given by B. as 
Nevasanfid-nd-sanndyatanam J tae i ast tw0 f jj^ kasinas.] 

36 Ahdrcpatikkulasanna 

37 Akiiicahnayatanam 


1. Upa. does not include in this list Bloka-kasina and paricchinnakasa 
kasirta given by B., although it is clear that he knew these two. He in- 
cludes them in the other two mentioned above. Besides, when he comes to 
the detailed treatment of these kamatthanas he does mention these two and 
gives a detailed treatment of them. See pp. 58, 59. It is, however, 
clear that there was a classification, even in the old Pali texts, of thirty- 



One should know these thirty-eight kammatthanas well in III. 103 
the following nine ways [B. mentions ten ways, of which "endways 
the first sankhdtaniddesato may as well be said to have been 
given i" the enumeration above.] 

(i) Jhdnato. This corresponds to upacdrappandvaliato and 
jhdnappabhedato of B. III. 106-107, but differs in this 
that Upa. adds a class of cahikka-pancakajjhdna to 
which he ascribes the first eight kasinas and dndpdna- 
sati, adds a class of aruppas to which he ascribes nos. 
9, 10, 37, 38 of the list given above, and that he as- 
cribes only upekkha (of the appamannas) to the catuk- 
kajjhdnika class. 

(ii) Samatikkamato : 

(a) Rilpasamatikkama : excepting the druppa kasi- 

nas (nos. 9 and 10 from the above list) in the 
remaining eight kasinas only ; in the remain- 
ing thirty there is no rupasamatikkama. 

(b) Arammana-samatikkama is seen in the three 
kammatthanas only, the two aruppakasinas and 
in the dkiricanndyatana ; not in the remaining 

(c) Sannd-vedan<i-samatikkama in no. 38 only, and 

not in the remaining. 

[B. mentions in III 108: Dve samatikkamd : 

angasamatiklcamo ca aramvianasamatikkamo 

III. 108 

I Vaddhanato. This corresponds to vaddliandvaddh-anato ill. 100-18. 

B. combat: 
this view. 

of B. III. 109-116, but there is an important difference. B - oombats 

According to Upa. the nimitta of the ten kasinas and 
the four appamdnacittdni should be developed and 
the remaining should not be developed. B. is 
vehemently against developing the nimitta of the 
brahmaviharas which correspond to the four appa- 
manacittas. [See B. III.113-114]. 

eight kammatthanas. See Bhs. para 203, A v thasalini pp. 158, 168, 187. 
B himself refers to it in Vis. VI. 56 in these words : Paliyam hi vibhatta- 
afthatimsurammanesu cvarupam bhcravarammamam nama natthi. The 
last two of the kasinas as mentioned in this list are found in M. ii 
14-15, Ps. i. 6, and Abhk. VIII. 36a; also NeW p. 89. See MCm. ii. 236: 
atthatimsarammanesu cittaruevjam kammatthanam aahetva. Also cf 
MCm. i. 195; ii. 358. 


[Chap, vii 

(iv) Paccayato. This corresponds to B. III. 120 which goes 
into more details than this test. Nine kammatthanas, 
the first eight kasinas and the paricchinndkdsa-kasina, 1 
become the paccaya of the abhinnas and the remain- 
ing thirty do not become. 

Excluding the last no. 38, the remaining thirty-seven 
become the paccaya of ■vipassand. Nevasannand- 
sanndyatana does not become. [B. does not agree with 
this view. 2 ] 
(v) Arammanato : 

(a) Patibhdgdrammandni — twenty-one : excluding 

virindiiakasina, the remaining nine kasinas, the 
ten asubhas, dndpdruasati and kdyagatdssati. 
[According to B. they are twenty-two, and he 
inserts the ten kasinas according to his enu- 

(b) Sabhavadhammdrammanani — twelve : vinndna- 
kasina, nevasaniidndsaiindyatana, and the ten 
■which bring about jhaniipacaras. 3 

(c) Patibhagdrammandni ti va 

na vattabbdni — five : the four appamdnacittd- 
ni and dlrificanndyatana. [B. has six adding 
There seems to be a long digression here giving the sixteen 
kinds of arammanas and the allocation of the different kammat- 
thanas to each of these arammanas. [ cf . B. XIII. 105 where 
twelve arammanas are mentioaed based upon the four triads 
of them given in Dhs. p. 2. ] 

(vi) Visesato ( % $? ). Upa. tells us here the special 
distinctive character of some of these kammat- 
thanas. For instance, the appamdna cittas have their 
special character in that they are faultless, or that 
catudhdtuvavatthdna is called paMdvisesa because 
it discerns the emptiness ( sunnatd ) of things. 

1. Apparently from the two additional kammatthanas. 

2. Also Cf. B. XVII. 76. 

3. These seem to correspond to B.'s eight anussatis (excluding 
an&pana and kdyagata from the ten) and fi/iare pafifcfcula-safiflfi and 
catudhatuvavatthana. See B. III. 106. 

Chap, vii] 


(vii) Bhumito. This substantially agrees with B. III. 118, 
except that this text uses the word instead 
of brahmaloka, and that it does not have any sentence 
corresponding to manussesu sab^dni pi pavattanti. 

(viii) Gahanato. Agrees with B. III. 119, except that Upa. 
includes kdyagatdsati under sutena. 

(ix) Rdgacaritddito. [N. C. for the first half.] 

A rdga-carita should not practise the four appa- ji.O. 
mdna, cittas, because they are the subhanimitta . For a 
rdgacarita, subhasaiind is not proper, just as fatty 
or oily things are not good for a man who has a 
preponderence of phlegm (semlia) in his humors. A 
dosacarita should not practise the ten asubhas 
because they are not suitable to him, just as a hot 
drink is not suitable to a man who has a preponder- 
ence of bile (pitta) in his humors. A mohacarita 
whose understanding is not developed may not allow 
himself to practise any Uammatthdna, because he does 
not know the proper means (updya ~jj (|? ). If he does 
not know the proper means, his efforts are fruitless. 
He would be like a man who rides an elephant without 
a goad. 

A rdgacarita should practise asubhasannas and ni. 121 
kdyagata sati which are, bo to say, proper antidotes 
against rdga. A dosacarita should practise the four appa- 
mdna cittas which are an antidote for dosa, or should 
practise the vanna-kasinas, because they are agreeable 
to his mind. [For this and the remaining part under 
this heading, see B. III. 121.] A saddhdcarita should 
practise the six satitthdndni beginning with Buddhd- 
nussati, because saddhd makes one settled or steady 
[ % ]. A buddhicarita should practise oatudhdtu- 
vavattlidna, dhdre patikkulassfind, maranasati- and 
upasamdnussati because they are profound. And, 
further, a buddhicarita has no obstacle in any 
kammatthdna. A vitakkaoarita should practise 
dndpdnasati, because it cuts off vitakkas. A moha- 
carita should, with faith, ask about and hear about the 
Dhamma, have reverence for it and should live with 
his teacher and develop his own understanding. 


[Chap, vii 

Out of these thirty-eight kammatthanas, one may practise, 
when one likes, maranasati and catudkdtuvavatthdna, which 
are the best. 

The chapter concludes wiih the following paragraph to 
which there does not appear to be anything corresponding in B. 

A ragacarita with a dull intellect (mudindriya) should prac- 
tise asubhanupassanas, while he who is endowed with a sharp 
intellect should practise satitthanas, and thus remove rdga. 
A dosacarita with a dull intellect should practise the four 
appamdna cittas, while one with a sharp intellect should 
develop his insight and thus remove dosa. A mohacarita with 
no intellect (anindriya) should not practise any kammatthana, 
while one with an average intellect should develop anapanasati 
for removing vitakka. [cf. B. III. 121 : mohacaritassa vitakka- 
caritassa ca ekam, anapanasati kammatthdnam eva.] 




[1-10 KASINA] 

[ Bk. 4. 1. 4—4. 20. 10 (end of the Bk. 4); Tak. 411b-41Tc. 
Cf. Vis. IV. 21-138] 


Upa. as usual sets up a number of questions which he 
answers one after another. He explains the meaning of the 
word pathavi-kasiya and tells us about its lakkhana, rasa, 
padatthdna and anisamsas, which last agree very slightly with 
those mentioned in B. V. 28. 

He goes on to discuss the two kinds of pathavi, natural and 
artificial (akata and kata of B. IV. 22). The former (akata) is 
not good for a yogavacara because the patibhdga-nimitta will 
not be produced from it. The latter is of fouT different colours 
white, black 3 , red and of dawn-colour (aruna-vanna HJJ ■£ ). 
Of these one should choose that of the dawn-colour, for if he 
chooses other colours, it would mean he is practising 

A man who has already had practice in jhanas will soon 
have patibhdganimitta. But a new man should make a mandala, 
circular, four-sided or three-sided, in a quiet place, a place of 
worship, a store-house or under a tree. That place should 
neither be too dark, nor have too much light. It should be away 
from non-human beings (amanussa # A )• This mandala may 
either be on a piece of cloth, or on a board of wood or on a 
partition-wall. Upa. here remarks, that although it may be 

1. Prof. Nagai translates :fj pg as 'basis of action'. Apparently 
this seems to be used in the same sense as kammatthana ( $f . J& ) It is, 
howerer, difficult to see why Upa. uses the former Chinese expression for 
the latter used in the preceding chapter. 

2. B. has the word pita, yellow (IV. 24). 

B. does 
not speak 
of these 


[Chap. vui. 1 

permissible to have the different kinds of mandala, circular and 
so on, or on a piece of cloth and so on, still former teachers 
consider a circular one, and that too on the earth, as the best. 
He also goes into some more details as to how he should take, a 
compass and make a circle and then prepare a man4ala out of 
wet earth. It should be of the size of a winnowing-basket or 
a water-bowl (suppamattam va saravamattam va) as B. quotes 
in IV. 22 from some old source. 

Katham pathavldhammo 1 (?) bhdvetabbo? 

If a man wishes to practise upon the patfiavi-kasina, 
he must first reflect upon the disadvantages of wordly 
pleasures (kdmesu ddinava) and the advantages of nekkhamma 
( ffl M )• To show the disadvantages of wordly pleasures 
Upa. gives a number of similes, taken from Hajjhima 22nd 
sutta, which B. merely indicates by saying : appassddd kamd 
ti adina nayena. [B. IV. 27.]. 

Upa. interprets the word nekkhamma in two ways: first, it 
means to leave home and then to practise kusala ; or it 
means to be away from the desires of sense. He also shows 
in a detailed manner the contrast between kdma and 

When the yogdvacara has seen the disadvantages of worldly 
pleasures and the advantages of nekkhamma, he should see 
what he should do and what he should not do. He should 
be moderate in food, remove idleness, take a seat after washing 
his hands and feet, and reflect upon the Enlightenment of the 
Buddha, upon the Dhamma and the Sangha. He should place his 
seat ( dsana *£ A ) at a distance equal to the length of a yoke 
(yu-ga ^IJ ') from the mandala, sit cross-legged with his body 
erect, and mindfulness alert, and look at the mandala with his 
eyes half open. 

In three ways he takes the nimitta : 

(i) Samena ummilanena. [This corresponds to B. IV. 28 
and substantially agrees with it.] 

1 ■ &&. 

2. See Mvy. 6639; also B. IV. 26, kasinamanfalato atfifhateyya- 
hatthantare padese. 

Chap. vui. 1] 


(ii) Updyehi. Upa. gives four kinds of upayas or means N.C. 
to reflect properly so as to produce the nimitta. 
If the nimitta is disappearing he thinks that there 
is something wrong with himself. If he sees only 
a small nimitta or sees only half of the mandala, 
he should see the mandala complete and without any 
deficiency. When he thus sees it, he may then remain 

(iii) Vikkhepappahdnena. By keeping his mind free from IV- 66-72. 
any distraction in four ways. He should not allow 
the balance of his mind to be disturbed by over- 
strenuoua work, or by excessive elation of the 
mind, nor should he allow his mind to sink into 
lethargy or depression. [Cf. B. IV. 66-72, where B. 
illustrates this idea with various similes. Upa. gives 
none of them.] 

Upa. then speaks of the two kinds of nimittas, uggaha- 
nimitta and patibhdga-iuimitta. The former is a kind of 
sannd that arises out of the mandala and the latter arises out 
of the former. While explaining the word nimitta, Upa. 
says that the patibhdga-nimitta is merely an image of 
thought (sanna-patibimba). 

The yogdvacara should guard the nimitta in three ways : 
(i) akusalappahdnena, (ii) kusalabhdvandya, and (iii) iv. 35.41 
ni-ccasevandya. He explains these terms. [Explanation of p,a- 
(i) and (ii) seems to correspond to a few details given in B. IV. 

Ko jhdnupacdro? Kd appndl Rim, tesam 7idndkaranam? 

Upa. goes into far more details than B. He gives several 
similes to show the distinction between the two, in addition 
to the simile given by B. in IV. 33 of a young child (dahara- 
kumara) to whom the upacdrajjhdna is compared. 

When one has attained upacdra or appand, one may develop 
the kasina gradually, inch by inch, until it is spread over the 
whole earth. [This portion agrees in thought, though not in 
expressions, with B. IV. 126-27.] 

When the yogdvacara has attained upacdra and is not able 
to produce appand, he should try to produce it by these two 
means : 

IV. 33 

IV. 126-127 


[Chap. vih. 1 

IV. 79 

IV. 89-90 

(i) By the practice of the ten ways and means that would 
help bim to reach the appana. [These ten are the same ten ways 
mentioned and explained by B. in IV. 42, and IV. 43-G5, 
respectively, with this slight difference that Upa. adds one, 
anassddatd after cittam nigganlidti and puts a samahita-pug gala- 
parivajjanato and samahita-pug gala-sevanato into one. Thus 
he has the same number ten.] 

(ii) By a strong resolve ( i>). jg j# ). When he has under- 
stood the ten dhammas mentioned just above, he enters a soli- 
tary place, knows his nimitta thoroughly, attains mastery 
over what he has already attained. His mind feels joy, is at 
ease, and with a firm resolution is freed from kilesas. It accom- 
plishes one dhamma-rasa. 

With this special distinction his mind gets the means for 
the appana and in no long time he reaches it. 

He attains the first jhana which is described in almost the 
same words as those in B. IV. 79 : 

Vivicc' eva kdmehi vvvicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkam 
savvcdram vivekajam pltisukham pathamam jhdnam upasam. 
pajja viharati. 

This is the advantage of the pathavi-kasina. 

Upa. comments on this whole passage and his comment is 
much more elaborate as he goes into many more details than B. 

He gives the various kinds of vivekas, and while explaining 
the word kdma gives the two divisions of vatthu-kdma and 
kilesa-kdma which he explains in general agreement with B., 
but he differs considerably in details. In this connection, Upa. 
refers to a book called = W, (lit. three boxes, three pitakas) 
from which he gives a quotation which purports to say : Alobhas- 
sa pdripuriyd kdmehi viveko sampajjati, adosassa......amohassa 

pdripuriyd akusalehi dhammehi viveko sampajjati. 1 

While explaining the distinction between vitakka and vied- 
ra, Upa. gives several similes in addition to those of ghantdbhi- 
ghdta and ghantdnurava, pakkhavikkhepa and paribbhamana, 

1. See Petakopadesa, Vllth Chapter, p. 157 (printed Burmese edition 
p. 191): Tattha, alobhassa paripuriyd vivitto hoti.kamehi, iattha adosassa 
paripuriya, amohassa paripuriya ca vivitto hoti papakehi akusalehi 

Chap, vin.- 1J 



given by B. in IV. 89-90. Upa. here again quotes H IS which 
purports to show that vitakka is the first application of the 
mmd to the object of its thought, like seeing a person from a N.O. 
distance but not being able to recognize whether it is a man or 
woman. 1 Upa. also adds another interesting simile, among 
several others, in which he compares vitakka to a strong man 
muttering a sutta to himself, while vicdra is like pondering 
over the meaning of the sutta. At the close of his remarks on 
this subject, Upa. says that vitakka is equivalent to nirutti- 
patisambhida, and patibhana-patisambhidd, while vicdra is 
equivalent to attha-patisambhidd and dhamma-patisambhida.* 

While explaining the word piti, in addition to the fivefold 
classification given by B. in IV. 94— the explanation of which, IV ' 94 
however, as given by Upa. is not the same as that of B.— Upa. 
gives another sixfold division as follows: 

(i) Kdmato jdtd, (ii) saddhaya jdtd, (iii) akukkuccato jdtd, 

(iv) vivelcato jdtd, (v) samadhito jdtd, and lastly (vi) N - c - 

bojjhangato jdtd. Similarly, while explaining the 

word mkha>, he gives five kinds of sukha, : 
(i) Hetu-sukha, (ii) sambhdra-sukha, (iii) viveka-suklia, 

(iv) nirupakkilesa-suklia, and finally (v) vedand-su- N.C. 


While explaining the distinction between piti and sukha, 
Upa. goes into many more points of distinction than those 
given by B. but in general purport his explanation agrees with 
that given by B. in IV. 100. 

Upa. further continues the description of the first trance : 
Pancangavippahinam, pancangasaman?idgatam, tividhakalyd- IV- 79 

m «; See P^^kopadesa, Vllth Chapter, p. 158, (Burmese edition, p. 191): 
iattha pathamabhmipato vitakko, patiUddhassa vicaranam vicaro- yatha 
puriso durato purisam passati dgaeehantam in ca tava j&nM Htthl ti va 
punso U v&; yaddhu patilabhati 'itthl ti va puriso'ti va, evam-vanno ti 
va, evajn-santluino h va,' ime vitakkayanto uttari upaparikkhanti (? ' ti) ■ 
imp, kho ayam silava uddhu dussilo, addho va duggato' ti va; evam vicaro 
vitakke appeti. 

2. See Petakopadesa, VHth Chapter, p. i68^p. 191 of the Burmese 
printed edition): Yatha baliko humhiko (timhiko, according to the 
printed edition) sajjhayam karoti evam vitakko, yatha tarn yeva anu- 

passah evam vicaro Niruttipafisambhidayam ca patibhrnnpati- 

sambhidayam ca vitakko, dhammapatisambhidayam ca atthapatisambhi- 
dayam ca vicaro. 


[Chap, vm. 1 

nam, dasalakkhanasampannam, paiicavisati-gundbhiyuttam. 
[Cf. B. IV. 79, where B. has nothing corresponding to the last 

While explaining the word paiicangavippahinam he enu- 
merates the five nlvaranas and while explaining the word 
middlia, Upa. goes into a discussion which shows the attitude 
of the school of Upa. with regard to middha 1 , which is entirely 
opposed to the attitude of B.and his school to the same nivarana. 

Upa. gives three kinds of middlia: dhdraja, utuja, and 
cittaja, of which only the last he considers as nivarana, while 
the other two are possible even in an Arhat. 3 To support 
his view, he gives the authoritative statement of 
Anuruddha, who is reported to have said that fifty- 
five years had elapsed since he had destroyed the asavas and 
attained a state where there was no middha produced from 
citta, but it was only twenty-five years since he had destroyed 
middJw, produced from ahara and utu. 3 Upa. further says 
that although middha is a rupadhamma, it is still a cetasika 
upakkilesa, because rupa is something that defiles the mind. 
Although middlia is a kdyika dliamma and tlvma a cetasika 
dliamma, they are considered as one nivarana because they 
have the same drammana and the same lakkluma in that 
they are identical with fatigue and exhaustion. 

Upa. gives four kinds of vicikicchd. He also discusses the 
point as to why the nlvaranas are just five. 

While commenting on the expression pancangasamannd- 
gatam, he gives the five angas, vitakka, vicdra, piti, sukha and 
ekaggatd. Just as we cannot have a cart without its different 
parts, or an army without its sub-divisions*, so also we cannot 
have a jhdna without these angas. They are five because these 
five include all others, and because they are just the opposite of 

1. See below pp. 95, 123; also DhsCm. p. 340. 

2. See Petakopadesa Vllth Chapter, p. 180, (Burmese printed edition 
p. 201) : Atthi pana Arahato kayakilesamiddham ca okkamati, no ca 
tarn nivaranam; tassa thinamiddhaiji nivaranan ti na ekaijisena. Also 
cf." Miln. 253.' 

3. Cf. Theragatha, stanza 904: 

PaHcapailnasa vassani yato nesajjiko aham 
■ pancavisati vassani yato middham samuhalam. 
i. See B. IV. 107 ; XVIII. 28. Abhk. viii. 7-8; Miln. 26-28 : Samanta- 

Chap. vm. 1] 


the nlvaranas which are only five. In this connection Upa. I ^ 6 tioii 
gives another quotation from E£ |K, which exactly corres- fronl ' 
ponds to the quotation from Petaka given by B. in IV.8C. It Fetal- 
is word for word the same : Samddhi' kdmacchandassa pati- 
pakkho, 'piti bydpddassa, vitakko thinamiddhassa, sulcham 
uddhaccakukl&uccassa, vicdro vicikicchdya. 

Commenting on tividha-kalydna, Upa. gives three kinds IV - Ul-113 
of kalyanas, ddi-kalydna, majjhe-kalydna, and party osdna- 
kalydna and about them he further remarks : 

(i) Pativaddvisuddhi ddi— explained as sasambhdriko vp- IV. 113-114 
\ i ■ r » refers to 

euro. this, 

(ii) Upekkhdnubruhand majjlie — explained as appand. 
(iii) Sampahamsand pariyosdnam — explained as paccavek- 

In his comment on dasalakkhanasampannam, Upa. gives the j:y m.jj3 
same lakkhanas as in the quotations from Ps. i. 167-168, given 
in B.IY. 111-113, except that Upa. uses vivekapatipamnam 
instead of samathapatipannam in B.IV. 112. While comment- 
ing on pancavisatigundbhiyuttam he gives the following 
twenty-five gunas : 

Vitakka, vicdra, piti, sukha, ekaggatd ; saddhd, sati, viriya, ^.c. 
samddhi, paniid; ddi, majjha, anta; sankhepa-sangaha ( jfr fi& ), 
bhdvand, viveka, nissaya, sangaha ( 85 $£ ), anunaya (? % ); 
vipassand; sevand, bala, vimutti, visuddhi, and parama- 
visuddha-yoga-siddhi-vihdm (? jji^Sff^fl^JiKtt). 

To show the nature of this trance that it is a dibbavihdra, jj.O. 
surpassing the human, produced from viveka and abiding in 
piti and sukha, Upa. gives a quotation, from M.i.276 in which 
the Buddha is represented to have given the following simile : 

Seyyathd pi, bhikkliava, dakkho nahdpako vd nahdpakante- 
vdsi vd...vivekajena pitisukhena apphutam hoti. 

Upa. also gives the application of the simile to the yogdvacara N.C. 
and his trance. He further says that this trance is of three 

1. Lit. ekaggatd ( — jg. ) is used for samadhi. I hare not yet been 
able to trace this quotation in the Petakopadesa. Also see DhsCm. 165. 

2. This passage is very important to determine the relation between 
the Vim. and the Vis. as exactly this very interpretation, word for word, 
of these three terms is referred to by B. and he ascribed the same 
to eke (IV. 114). Dhamapala in his comment on the word eke explains 
that the reference is to Abhayagirivasino. [Burmese edition, p. 159] 


[Chap. viii. 1. 

kinds, paritta, majjhima and partita. He who cultivates the first 
of these is born, at the end of his life, among the gods who may 
be in the circle of 5ra/imd,' and his life-period there is limited 
to one third of a kappa. One who cultivates the second of these 
is born among Brahma gods, where the life-period is limited 
to one half of a kappa. If one cultivates the last of these, then 
one is born among the Mahabrahmas, where the life-period is 
one kappa. 2 

The advantage of being bom among the Brahma-gods is 
of four kinds : 

(i) HdnabUgiya: like a man of dull faculties (mudin- 
driya) who is careless. Upa. also gives other alternative 
explanations of this and discusses why one falls from 
the position once attained. 
(ii) Thitibhagiya: like a man of dull faculties, who be- 
comes careful and contemplates upon the Dhamma. 
(iii) Visesabhdgiya : like a man of keen faculties (Ukkhin- 
driya) who is careful and can attain the second trance 
when he likes. 

(iv) Nibbedhabhagiya: like a man of keen faculties, who 
is careful and attains when he likes vipassana, pursues 
thoughts of nibbidjS aud virago. 

™ ~ his seema t0 bo the eq>»™lent of Brahma-parisajias. See Abhs. 
p. 22, Chap. V. ppra. 6. 

2. Cf. Abhs. p. 22, Chap. V. para. 6, where we find an exactly 
similar statement. 




[Bk.5. 1.4-5.23.8 ; (end of Bk. five). Tak. 418a-424a. Cf.Vis. 

The yogdvacara wishing to enter the second trance thinks 
of the disadvantages of the first trance and the advantages of 
the second. But he has first to attain mastery over the first 
trance. For, if he has not mastered the first trance, not only 
will he not be able to enter the second trance, but he will fall 
back even from the first. To illustrate this, Upa. like B. (IV. 
130), gives the famous simile of pabbateyyd gdvl, 1 the mountain- 
cow, and shows its application also. 

When the yogdvacara has thus attained mastery 2 over the first 
trance, be tries for the second, thinking of vitalcka and vicdra 
as gross, and in no long time he attains the second trance. Upa., 
like B., follows Vibhanga 245, in the description of the second 
trance : Vitakkavicdrdnam vupasamd ajjhattam, sampasd- 
danam cetaso ekodibhavam avitakkam avicaram samddhijam 
pitisukham. datiyam jhdnam. 

Upa.'s comment on the words in this passage does not always 
agree with that of B. in its details, although in general spirit 
it agrees. 

The description of the second trance is further continued : 
duvanga-vippahlnara, duvanga( ?)-samanntigatam, 3 tivtdha- 
kalydnam, dasalakkhana-sampannam, tevlsati-gnnabhiyuttam. 

1. A. iv. 418-19. 

2. Upa. does not mention the five kinds given by B. in IV. 131-137. 

3. I fail to see why we have here the mention of two 
angas only. Vbh. 258 mentions four, sampasada, plti, sukha, and 
cittassa ekaggata. See also Abhk. VIII. 7-8 which gives the same four 
angas in the second trance. Even Upa. himself mentions elsewhere (5.2.10) 
four as the number of angas for this trance. Petakopdesa VII. 155, 
VII. 206 (Burmese printed ed. pp. 190, 213) also mentions these four 

IV. 149 



[Chap, vm. 2 

IV. 153 

IV. 156 



Upa. does not explain the words in this passage. There is 
nothing in B . corresponding to the word tevisati-gundbhiyuttam. 
This second trance is further illustrated by the following simile 
from M.i. 27G-77. 

Seyyatha pi, bhikkhave, udakarahado ubbhidvdako etc. 
The passage here omits some details of expressions. Here also 
the application of the simile follows. This trance also is of 
three kinds, paritta, majjhima, pantta, leading respectively to 
birth among the Parittdbha, Appamdnabha and Abhassara 
gods, where the life-period is limited to two, four and eight 
kappas respectively. 1 

Later after acquiring mastery over the second trance, the, proceeds to the third trance. It is described as 
follows : 

Pitiyd ca virago, upekkhako ca viharati, sato ca sampajdno, 
sukhaii ca kayena patisamvedeti, yam tarn, ariya dcikkhanti, 
upekkhako satimd sukhaviharl ti tatiyam jhdnam. 

In his comment on this passage, Upa. gives eight, kinds of 
upekkha while B. gives ten kinds (IV. 156), but later (IV. 167) 
B. explains that sankhara-upekkha and tatramajjhattupekkhd 
are included in some of the rest and so are not quite distinct. 
Upa. gives another three-fold classification also. TJpa. also 
discusses the points raised by B. in IV. 171, 173 as to why 
upekklid and sati-sampajanna are not mentioned in the lower 
trances although they are there. We also find here the simile of 
dhenupaka vaccha given by B. in IV. 174. 

Upa.'s comment on sukliaii ca kayena... ...suklia-vihdrl is 

much different, although we can trace a passage that corres- 
ponds to the quotation from Vbh. 259, given in B, IV.176. 
Upa. further continues the description of the third trance : 

Ekangavippahlanam, paTicanga-samamidgatam,' tividha- 
kalydiiam, dcsa-lakkhana-sampannam, d.vdvisatigunasampayut- 

This trance is illustrated by the simile from M. i. 277 -.Seyya- 
tha pi, bhikkhave, uppaliniyam va pad-uminiyam va 

1. This idea corresponds to that expressed in Abhs. pp. 22-25, 
Chop. V. par. 6. 

2 Cf. Vim. 5.7a 4-5; see Vbh., 260 which gives the five angas as 
upekkha satt, sampajaiiila, sukha, and cittassa ekaggatu; also Petako- 
padesa VI. 155, 206 (Burmese printed ed. pp. 190, 213) 

Chap. vm. 2] 


apphutam hoti. The application of this simile also is given. 
This trance is described further as of three kinds, paritta, maj- 
jhima and panlta, leading respectively to the birth among the 
Parittasubha, Appamdnasubha and Subhakinha gods, where the 
life-period is respectively limited to sixteen., thirty-two and 
sixty-four kappas. 1 

Having mastered the third trance, the yogdvacara proceeds 
to the fourth trance which is described in the same words as 
given by B. in IV. 183 : 

Sukhassa ca pahdnd dukkhassa ca pahdnd pubbeva soma' 
nassa-domanassdnam atthangamd adukkhamasukham upekkhd- 
sattpdri sudhim catuttham jhdnam. 

Upa.'s comment on this passage generally agrees with that of 
B. in IV. 184-190, but does not here go into the distinction IV. 184- 
between upacdra and appand as he has already given that kind 
of distinction before. 2 We also find here the quotations from 
S.v. 213-215, and from Vbh. 2G1, given by B. in IV. 180 and in iv. 194 
IV, 194 respectively. 

Upa. further continues the description of the trance : ckanga- 
vippahinam, tivanga-samanndgatam,' tividha-kalydiuim , dasa- 
lakkliana-sampannam, bdvisatigmia-sampayuttam. [B. has 
nothing corresponding to the last adjective and instead of 
tivanga-samanndgatam he gives duvanga-samanndgatam.] 

This trance is further illustrated by the simile from M.i. 277- 
78 : Seyyatha pi, bhikkhave, pitriso oddtena vatthena saslsam 
purupito rdsinno assa, ndssa kiiici sabbdvato kdyassa oddtena 
vatthena apphutam assa, evameva etc. 

An ordinary man {puthujjana) is born among the Vehappliala 
gods. If his mind experiences nibbida, he is born among the 
asaiini gods where the life-period is limited to fifty kappas.* N.O. 
If he is a samana, he is born either among the Vehappliala 

1. The life-periods mentioned here agree with those given in Abhs. 
p. 22-23 par. 6. 

2. See p. 45 above. 

3. See Vbh. 261 where the fourth trance is explained as vpekkh/i, 
sati and cittassa ekagattd; also cf. Petakopadesa VI. 155 (Burmese 
printed ed. p. 190) which mentions /our angas i.e., adukkhamasukha. 
vedand in addition to the three given in Vibhanga. 

4. Cf. Abhs. p. 23, Chap. V, para 6, where the life-period of these 
gods is given as 500 kappas. 


[Chap. viii. 2 

gods, or in one of the five planes of the Pure Abodes (Suddhd- 
vd-sa-bhumi) .' 

Upa. raises a question as to why in this trance there are no 
distinct grades of phala and bhiimi, as we had in the third trance. 
He answers that in the third trance, a coarser or a finer state is 
attained on account of coarser or finer angas, and so there could 
be had some distinct grades of phala and bhiimi ; but in the 
fourth trance, all the angas are fine and so there can not 
be any such distinguishing grades. 


As described in the preceding trances, the yogavacara sees 
the disadvantages of the last trance (i. e. the fourth trance in 
this case), as well as of material form {riipa), and sees the 
advantages of the Meditation of Space (dkdsa-samdpatti) and 
considers this last as santa and vimokkha. Upa. gives the dis- 
advantages of rupa in words which correspond to the first half 
of the passage quoted in Vis. X. 1. The disadvantages of the 
fourth trance are described in words which also correspond to 
those used by B. in X. 5. 

The yogavacara first induces the fourth trance on the 
patJiavi-kasina, and then breaking' through the pathavl-nimitta 
he attains the dkdsdnancdyatana-samddhi. 

This attainment is described in the same words from Vbh. 
245 as are quoted by B. in X. 12 : 

Sabbaso rupasanndnam samatikkamd, patigha-sanndnam 
atthangamd, ndnatta-saniidnam amanasikdrd, ananto dkaso ti 
dkdsdnancdyatanam upasampajja viharati. 

The comment on this passage generally agrees with that 
of B. except in the case of the words rupasanna and akd-sa. In 
the former case, Upa. agrees with Vbh. 201, and in the latter, 
he comes closer to Dhs. para. 638. * 

In the explanation of patigha-sannd and ndnatta-saiifid also, 
Upa. follows Vibhanga 261. The points raised by B. in X. 15, 

1. See p. 120 below. 

2. Upa. immediately after the rUpavacara trance proceeds to the 
aruppas, which are treated by B. in the Xth chapter. 

3. B. X. 7 : kasinam uggh&tento. 

4. Dhs. § 638: yo akaso, akasagatam, agham aghagatar/i, vivaro 
vivaragatam, asamphuttham catahi mahdbhutehi, idaip. tam rupain 

Chap. viii. 2] ARUPPA C5 

18, 19, are also referred to by Upa. "While illustrating the 
undisturbed condition of what Upa. calls asaniil samddhi, Upa. 
includes the name of Uddaka Ramaputta also, along with that 
of [Alara] Kalama, whom five hundred carts passed by and still 
they neither saw them, uor heard any sound of the carts pass- 
ing by. B. mentions this incident of only Alara Kalama. We 
also find, in the explanation of the word dkdsdnaiicdyatana, 
the illustration, as B. gives in X. 24, of devdnam devdyatanam. 

This samddhi is further described as tivanga-samanndgatam, N.O. 
tividha-kalydnam, dasalakkhana-sampaniiam, bdvisatigundbhi- 
yuttam to which there is nothing corresponding in B. As a 
reward for this trance, one is born among the dkdsdnancdyatanH- 
paga gods where the life-period is limited to 2000 kappas. 1 


The yogavacara sees the disadvantages of the dkdsd- 
nancdyatana-samddhi and sees the advantages of the viiindnan- 
cdyatana-samddhi, and in no long time goes from the lower to 
the higher samddhi, which is described in the same words from 
Vibhanga as are quoted in Vis. X. 27: 

Sabbaso dkdsdnancayatanam samatikkamma anantam x. 27 
vinndnan ti vinnanaiicayatanam upasampajja viharati. 

The comment on this passage agrees in general with that of 
B. except in the case of dkdsdnancayatanam samatikkamma f rom 
which is disposed off by Upa. in one sentence. Here also the X. 31 
illustration of devdnam devdyatanam iva as given by B. in 
X. 31 is found. 

As a reward for this concentration, one is born among the jj.C. 
■viiindnancayatanupaga gods, where the life-period is limited to 
4000 kappas. 2 


Seeing the disadvantages of v inn an aiicdy at 'ana- samddhi, the 
yogavacara proceeds to the next higher dkincanndyatana- 
samddhi, which is described as in the passage from Vbh. 245, 
quoted by B. in X. 36 : 

Snbbaso viiindnancdyatanam samatikkamma natthi kiiici x. 30 
ti dkincannayatanam upasampajja viharati. 

1. Abhs. p. 23 gires 20,000 kappas as the life-period of these gods. 

2. Abhs. p. 23, gives 40,000 kappas. 


[Chap. vm. 2 

X. S6-66 

In his explanation of dkincaiiiidyatana, Upa. gives a passage 
corresponding- to the quotation from Vbh. 2G2, given by B. in 
X. 38. This samadhi also is further described as : tivanga- 
samanndgatam , t.ividha-kalydnam, dasalakkliana-sampannam, 

As a reward for its attainment, one is born among the dkincaii- 
iidyatana gods, where the life-period is limited lo G000 kappas. 1 


The yogavacara proceeds to the nest higher nevasaiindndsan- 
ndyatana.-sam.ddhi, which is described iu words that corres- 
pond to the quotation from M. ii. 231 given by B. in X. 40: 

Saiiiid Togo safind gando etc. 

Like B., Upa. comments ou the passage quoted from 
Vibhanga, in Vis. X. 42. 

This samadhi also is further described as : tivanga-sama/ind- 
gatam, tividha-kalydnam. , dasalakkliana-sampannam, bdvisatii- 

As a reward for its attainment, one is born among the neva- 
sanndndsanndyatana gods, where the life-period is limited to 
84,000 kappas. 5 

General remarks on this topic are made under the following 
heads : 

(i) Saddanirodha. A man who enters the first trance 
cuts off speech, enters the fourth trance and then 
gradually cuts off breathing in, and breathing out, 
sound and smell. Here we meet with a sentence : 
jhdnam samdpannassa saddo kantako, which closely 
corresponds to B.'s pathamam, jlidnam samdpannassa 
saddo kantako ti vutto Bhagavatd in X. 19. 

(ii) Vipalldsasaiind.' He knows the patliavi-sannd and 
knows its characteristics and so has no ■vipalldsasaiifid. 

1. Cf. Abhs. p. 23, which gives 60,000 kappas as the lite-period here. 

2. Here Abhs. p. 23 agrees. 

3. Upatissa here disposes off the question that may be raised as to 
why there is no viparita saflild when the yogavacara forms pafhavl-saiiM 
about things for which there cannot inherently be any pathavi-saaM. 
{Pa(luiv',-kasinaiK samapanno- a-pathavi-saHn&ya pafhavi-saMknii karoti. 
Evaip. sati katliam. viparlta-saMa na hoti ?). His argument, however, 
is not quite clear. 

Chap. viii. 2] 



(iii) Vutthdnam. Five causes are mentioned for emerging 
out of samadhi. But if he has entered upon an ariipd- 
xacara samSdhi, he does not emerge from it for any 
reason of the multiplicity of objects, for this samadhi 
is dneiija-vihdra. If he has entered upon nirodha- 
samdpatti, or upon phalasamdpatti, he emerges only 
as he had previously determined. No other cause 
can affect'him. 

(iv) Samatikkama [See B. III. 108]' : 

(a) anga-samatikkama, as when one passes from jh jqq 

one rupuvacara trance to another. 

(b) drammana-samatikkama, as when one passes 

from rupuvacara samadhi to arupdvacara 
samadhi, or from one arupdvacara samadhi 
to another, 
(v) Upacdra. The upacdra of all kinds of samadhis has 

five angas. 
(vi) Vitakka. Dutiyajjlidnddi-gotrabhu-anantaram avitak- 

(vii) Vedand, Catutthjjhdnddi-gotrabliu-anantaram upek. 

khdya uppddo. 
(viii) Vicikicchd. If he has not cut off hindrances, kdmac- 
chanda and the rest, he is like one who is afraid 
of a snake on a tree, 
(si) Abhabbd samddhissa uppddanaya. Four 2 kinds of 
people cannot attain any samadhi. [Does this corres- 
pond very roughly to Vis. V. 40-41?]. 

Pathavi-kashham nitth itam. 

V. 40-41 


Upa. gives the lakkhana, rasa, etc. in three different sec- 
tions, one for each of these three kasinas. Upa. agrees generally y. \_\\ 
with B's. remarks on the preparation of the kasi-na. [Cf.B. V. 3, 
5, G.] He also agrees with B. in saying that a beginner should 
not practise on natural sheets of water such as ponds, lakes, 
rivers, ocean, but should practise on water in a bowl or basin, 
placed iu a quiet, solitary place, neither too dark nor having too 
much light. Upa's. remarks about the two-fold nimittagahana 

1. See p. 39 above. 

2. Upa. does not enumerate whch these four are. 


[Chap. vm. 2 

V. 21-23 

V. 22 din. 

[dittliavasena va phutthavasena va] of vayo-ka&ina generally 
agree with B's. remarks in V. 9-10. Upa. also mentions in the 
section on vdyc-lasina a sugar-cane, a bamboo-grove, or a place 
where rank, wild grass grows, which comes closer to itcch-agga, 
vdlagga quoted from the Atthakathas bj r B. in V. 9. 


Upa. here also gives the lakkhana, rasa, etc. The treatment 
of all these kasinas is the same except that the flowers, or pieces 
of cloth, or the colour used are those that correspond to these 
names. Here also we find the mention of a inandala that is 
circular, quadrilateral or triangular. 1 A beginner should not 
try to take nimitta from natural things, but he should contem- 
plate upon kasinas that are artificially made from flowers of the 
colour suitable to each of these kasinas. The advantages of these 
kasinas as given by Upa. substantially correspond to those 
mentioned by B. in V. 32-35. 


[It is rather strange to find here, the treatment of the dloka- 
kasina as well as that of the next (9b), 'dkdsa not without rvpa,' 
although Upa. does not include them in the list of the thirty- 
eight kammatthanas. It is probably these that he bad in his 
mind when he referred to the two extra ones. 2 ] 

The treatment of this kasina also is the same as given in the 
last four, except that the artificial kasina mentioned here is 
different from that given in Via. V. 22. Here Upa. says that 
the yogdvacara Bhould sit by the wall of the eastern or western 
direction, should fill a bowl of water and keep it in a place 
where the sun shines. From this water where the sun is shin- 
ing, light will be reflected on the wall. On this [reflected 
light] he should meditate. 

1. See pp. 43-44. 

2. See p. 38; Cf. B. V. 21-26. 




[Bk.C.1.4.— 6.21.6 (end of Bk. 6); Tak. 424a— 429c. Vis. V. 24-2G, 
Chaps. VI & VII.] 

9. Akdsa-kasina. 

Upa. gives here also lakkhana, rasa, etc. He gives this 
kasina as of two kinds : 

(a) dkdsa which is without rupa. [It is this that is no. 
9 of the kasinas according to Upa.] 

(b) dkdsa not without rupa, as the 6pace in the hollow of 
a well. 1 [Apparently corresponding to paricchinnd- 
kdsa-kasina of B.V. 24-26.] 

The treatment of the natural or artificial kasinas roughly 
agrees with that given by B. in V. 24-25. 

This is viniidn dkdsa. 

[No details are given of this kasina.] 


[The pakinnakakatha as given by Upa. has nothing in com- 
mon with that given by B. in V. 28-42.] 

When the yogdvacara has attained mastery over one nimit- 
ta, he pursues the remaining if he likes. He may attain the four 
trances in succession. The four vannakasinas are the best 
because they accomplish the vimokkhas and because they enable 
one to reach abhibhayatanas (^ A). Of these, the oddtakasina is 
the best, because it creates light. [With this compare B. XTII. 
95 where he says : imesu ca pana tisu dloka-kasinam, eva 
setthataram] . 

1. Taisho ed. #. 

No such 

V. 28-42 


[Chap. viu. 3 

When the mind has attained mastery over the eight kasinas 
and eight samadhis, gradually, the appand appears. 

Upa. gives in this passage several details of acrobatic feats, 
as it were, in the use of kasinas and various trances attained with 
their help, such as going up from the first trance to the nevasaii- 
nanasaiinayatana; back from the same to the first, or from the 
first to the third, then back to the second, and again forward 
to the fourth, and so on, up to the nevasanndndsailndyatana. 
There are several such details. [With this should be compared 
1J. XIII. 1-7. There also we find such acrobatic feats some of 
which agree with those given by Upa.] 

[11-20 ASUBHANL] 

Upa. gives as usual the lakkhana, rasa, etc. He gives nine 
anisamsas of the uddhumdtaka-sannd : 

(i) ajjliatta-kdyagatasatiyd patilabho. 

(ii) aniccasanndya patilabho. 

(Hi) marana-saniiaya patilabho . 

(iv) nibbidd-bahulo . 

(v) kdvia-vikkho/mbhanam. 

(vi) rupmnadappahanam. 

(vii) arogamadappahdnam. 

(viii.) sugati-pardyanatd. 

(ix) amata-pardyanata. 

Kathatn tassa nimittam ganhati? 

A beginner should go alone, without any one else as his 
companion, as described in detail in the quotation from some 
older source, given in B. VI. 19-22. 

[It is remarkable to find the whole of this long passage 
ascribed by B. to the Atthakathas (Atthakathdsu vuttena 
vidhind, VI. 18) given here by Upa. One should be surprised to 
find such close similarity in thought and words and one cannot 
attribute it to a mere accident.] 

Upa. also comments on this passage and his comment 
generally agrees with that of B., except in that on the words 
lingato, samantato and except that he says dasavidhena 
nimittaggaho instead of ekddasavidhena nimittaggaho of 

Chap. viii. 3] 


In his comment on the word lingato, Upa. says that the 
yogdvacara may note whether the bloated body is that of a 
man or woman, or of one who is eld or young, or whether it is 
long or short, and so on, although later he says [6.8a.l0] that 
a beginner with many kilesas should not take a nimitta from 
an object that is disagreeable (vi-sabhaga), which he explains 
as 'a woman's body to a man 1 . [Cf. B.\I A2=purisassa itthi- 

The comment on samantato differs entirely from that of B. 
in VI. 49. 

Upa. has only ten ways because he takes ninnato and thalato 
together and not separately as B. does [VI. 47-48.] Besides, 
Upa. comments on several other expressions of this passage 
on which B. does not comment. 

In this section Upa. treats the subject-matter covered in yj i 
B. VI. 50-68 and VI. 86-87. Upa. also raises the point discussed sa - 
by B. in VI. 86, as to why only the first trance is possible on 
the asubhas and his answer is essentially the same as given by 
B. in VI. 86-87. We do not, however, find the simile of a boat 
rendered stable by an aritta, given by B. in VI. 86 to illustrate 
his explanation. Upa. also does not go into the details of the 
whole subject as B. does. 









The treatment of these asubhas is brief 
and almost similar. Upa. gives as usual 
the lakkhana, rasa, etc. The anisamsas 
of all are the same as those of the uddhu- 
mdtaka. Even the mode of taking nim itta 
\5 the same except in vicchiddaka and 
vikkhittaka, where it roughly agrees 
with what B. says in VI.72,74. The ex- 
i planation of these names of the asubhas 
is much different from that of B. in VI. 
1-10 and VI, 70-74. The quotation from 
D.ii.296 alluded to by B. in VI. 78 is 
given here in detail. About the last 
asvbha, atthika, Upa. like B. [VI. 80] 
says that the kammatthdna is successful 
even if there is one bone, as when there 
is a skeleton of bones, for an object of 



[CnAr. vm. 3 


A beginner with many kilesas should not take nimitta from 
an object that is disagreeable (vi-sabhaga), -""hich is explained 
as 'a woman's body to a man". Upa. raises the question as to 
why the asubhas are just ten, neither more nor less. In his 
answer, among other things, he says : Because when the body is 
dead, it can be only of ten kinds and because in as much as 
there are [only] ten kinds of men [which are given in detail by 
B. in VI. 85], there are ten kinds of saiinanimitta. 

Upa. closes this section, saying, with reasons, that the 
asubha should not be developed. He gives a quotation from the 

Abhidhamma, and agatlia from Ta-te-shi-kyu-phu ( -}z S 

•$J 50, Bhadanta Sigalapita}, which exactly corresponds to stanza 
18 from Theragatha from which only the second line is quoted 
by Buddhaghosa in III. 111. 


Upa., while explaining the word Bitddhanussati, comments 
on the word Buddha. His comment is almost word for word 
the same as given in Ps.i.74, para. 28, (first sub-para.), begin- 
ning with the words : Yo so Bhagava sayambhft anacariyako 

etc. B. refers in VII. 52 to the next sub-para, only of Ps. 
beginning with the words : Bujjhitd saccani tiBuddho, and 
so on. 

Upa. as usual gives the lakkhana, rasa, etc. and gives 
eighteen advantages, many of which are the same as given by 
B. in VII. 67. In the same connection, he refers to a sentence 
from Shiu-to-lo-nieh-ti-li -chu (fg £ H g jg M <6j) Netrl-pada- 
siitra (?) s which says, 'If a man desires to reflect upon the 
Buddha, he is worthy to be revered like a place with the image 
of the Buddha'. [6.10.6; Tak. 426c.7.] [With this compare B. 
VII. 67 : Buddhagunanussatiya ajjhdvuttham c'assa sariram 

1. Cf. B. III. Ill which quotes the second Hue from the following 
stanza ascribed to Thera Singala-i::ia:- 

Ahu Buddhassa dayado bhikkhu bhesakalavanc 
kevalam atthisaiiilaya aphari paihavim imarn 
manUc'ham kamar&gam so khippam eva pahiyatl 11 

(Thera-gatha I. 18) 

2. See also p. 72. Cf. Netripada-Sastra of TJpagupta [Abhk. ii. 205] 

Chap. vm. 3] 



vm. 2 


VII. 38, 39 

pi cetiyagharam iva piijaraham hoti, which comes quite close 
to the sentence referred to above.] 

The yogavacara should reflect upon the Buddha in this 
way : 

Bhagava araham sanvmasambvddho vijjacarana-sampanno 
sugato lokavidil anuttaro pwrisadammasarathi sattha deva- 
manussunam. It will be noticed that this is substantially the 
same as the passage given by B. in VII.2 and on which he bases 
his own exposition. 

Upa. comments on this whole passage. His comment some- Expl 
times agrees with that of B. and sometimes it does not. It is 
very simple and there is nothing corresponding to the artificial 
and scholastic interpretation of the word Bhagava as given by 
B. in VII.54-64. While commenting on the word vijjdcarana- 
sam.panno, Upa. gives in full the explanation of vi.jja and 
carana, as given in the Bhayabherava 1 and the Ambattha' suttas, 
while B. merely refers to it. While commenting on the word 
tokavidu, Upa. speaks of only two lokas, sattaloka and sankh<ira- 
loka, and even their explanation is altogether different from 
B.'s interpretation of these words. [VII. 38,39] 

[Now follows a section to which B. has nothing correspond- 
ing in the chapter on 'Cha Anussatiniddesa' . But later in 
IX. 25-35, he has something which corresponds only in a general 
spirit to this section of Upa. The details are quite different.] 
The yogavacara should reflect upon the Tathagata in four 
ways : 

(i) By reflecting upon the preparation made by the ix. 25-35 
Buddha in his past lives, before he became the Buddha diff - 
(i. e. while he was a Bodhisatta). During the long 
period of twenty-four asankheyya kappas, and one 
hundred ayutas 3 , i.e. since the time when the Bodhisatta 
expressed his aspiration (panidhana) to become the 
Buddha until his last life, the Buddha, not being satis- 
fied with special religious distinctions he had attained, 

1. Majjhima, 4th Sutta. 2. Digha, 3rd Sutta. 

3. Cf. Vis. IX. 26: Sattha pubbcva sambodha. anabhisambuddho 
bodlusatto pi samano cattari asankheyydni kappasatasahassail ca para- 
mryo purayamano. Also Ja. vol. i. 3, Buddhavamsa, p. 6, which both read: 
Kappe ca satasahasse ca caturo ca asankhiye. 


[Cnxp. vni. 3 


was always working for others, trying to save them. 
He practised the paramitas 1 of dana, sila, nekkh-am- 
ma, khanti, saoca, adhitthdna, mettd, tipekkhd, viriya 
and panna. Upa. refers to various stories which 
illustrate the paramitas practised by the Buddha, 
while he was a Bodhisatta. Among these stories, the 
following can be traced : 

The stories of Sasajataka {Cariydpitaka I. 10, p. 82; Ja. iii. 
51-5G), of Mahd-Govinda (D. ii. 220-252, sutta no. xix) 
Saccasavhaya (? Cariyapitaka III. 7, p. 97), Mugapakkha 
(Cariydp itaka III. 6, p. 96-97), Lomahamsa-jataka (Ja. i. 389-91), 
Setthi-jataka 2 , of Dighavu (Vin. i. 342-349, Chap, x.), Chaddanta 
jataka(Ja. v. 36-57), Valahassa (J&. ii. 127-130), Nigrodhamiga 
(Ja. i. 145-153), Mahakapi (Ja. iii. 369ff., no. 407). The 
story of Mahakapi referred to by B. in IX. 31 is the story 3 from 
Ja. v. 67-74 and is also referred to by Upa. 

In this way the yogdvacara should reflect upon the virtues 
practised by the Buddha in his past lives. 

(ii) By reflecting as to how the Blessed one pulled himself 
out [of the mire of this world.] 

The yogdvacara reflects how the Buddha [while he was still 
a Bodhisatta] left his wife and child, father, mother and other 
relatives, and in search of the peaceful nibhdna, went to 
Magadha country, crossed the Keranjara river, went to the Bodhi 
tree, defeated Mara and his army. In the first part of the 
night, he recalled his past life, in the middle he attained the 
Divine Eye, and in the last he destroyed samudaya (tanha), 
reached the immortal state (amatadhdtu) , cultivated the eight 
angas of the Right Path and experienced the destruction of the 

1. Cf. Mvy. 914-923 where ten paramitas are mentioned, but the 
list does not agree with this in all its constituents. Also see B.D. p. 167-168. 
Also Cf. the list in Chin. Dhs. (V.) pp. 24, 121 which agrees with the list 
in Mvy. 

2. For the Chinese characters for this word see Mvy. 3708. See 
Jatakamala, stories nos. 4, 20; also no. 5 for Avisahya Sresthi-jataka. See 
Jatakamala in the Chinese version, Nanjio, 1312. 

3. P.T.S. edition of the Vis. i. p. 303 refers inadvertently to Ja. 
iii. 369ff. 

(iii) By reflecting upon the dhammavisesas 1 [kalyaija- 
dhammd of B. IX. 124] attained by the Buddha. 

(a) Dasa Tathdgatabalani : the same as given in M. i. 


(b) Catuddasa Buddhandnapannd : the last fourteen 

Sanaa of the seventy-three Sanaa given in Ps. at 
the end of the Mdtikd [Ps. i. 3.] 

(c) Atthdrasa Buddhadhammd 2 : 

1. Atitamse Buddhassa Bhagavabo appatihatandnann. 

2. AnHgatamse ,, ,, ,, 

3. V accxvppara- ,, ,, ,, 

4. Sabbam kdyakammam fidnapubbangamam 

iidndn.upariva tt a in . 

5. Sabbam vacikammam ,, ,, 
G. Sabbam manokammam ,, ,, 

7. Natthi chandassa ham. 

8. Natthi viriyassa hard. 

9. Natthi satiyd hdni. 

10. Natthi samddhissa hdni. 

11. Natthi paiindy a hdni. 

12. Natthi vimuttiyd hdni. 

13. Natthi dvedhdyitattam., 

14. Natthi rava. These last 

15. Natthi \kiiici\ apphutami \nanena.\ , six are ex- 

16. Natthi davd. " plained by 

17. Natthi byavatamano. Upa. 

18. Natthi appatisankhanvpekkhd. 

(d) Cattdri vesdrajjdni, cattdri satipatthdndni, cattd- 
ri sammappadhdndni, cattdro iddhipddd, pailca 
indriydni, pailca baldni, clia abhiiind, satta 
sambojjltongdni, atthangiko magg.o, attha abhi- 

1. Cf . Vis. IX. 124 : Evam paramiyo puretva yava dasabala- 
catuvesdrajja-cha-asadkuranaiidna-atpiarasa-lluddhadhainmappabhede sabbe 
pi kalyariadhamme paripurenti. B. does not enumerate them. Also cf. 
Vis. Ganthi (towards the end of Chap. IX) which gives only six 
asadharanauanas and eighteen Buddhadhammas; Mvy. 119-129, 131-134, 

2. This list is also given in Vis. Ganthi towards the end of the com- 
ment on Chap. IX. Also cf. Mvy. 135-153; Chinese Dharmasangraha, 
AstadasSvenika dharmuh, XLI (pp. 34 & 119). The wording in the latter 
is quite different. 



bhdyatandni, attha vinvokkhd, nava anv.pv.hha- 
samdpattiyo, dasa ariyavdsd, dasa dsavakkhaya- 
baldni, avasesa ca anekd kusaladhainma. 
(iv) B3' reflecting that the Blessed One did a great good to 
the world, that he, haying compassion upon the 
people, turned the Wheel of the Law, opened the gates 
of deathlessness (amatadvdra), that he made innumer- 
able gods and men reach the sdmaiinaphala, that by 
the three 1 kinds of miracles (pdtihdriya) he made the 
people entertain faith, opened the sugatis, preached 
the Patimokkha and so on. 
By reflecting in these four ways, the mind of the yogdva- 
cara attains faith, becomes free from distraction, and the 
jhanangas arise. 

Upa. agrees with B. VII. 66. in saying that by this reflec- 
tion upon the Buddha, the mind does not reach appana but only 

Upa. concludes this section with a remark, "Further it is 
said [by some] that by reflecting upon the Buddha even the 
fourth trance is reached." 


B. does not give any comment on the word Dhamma. Upa's. 
comment on the same word is worth noting. Here it is : 
Dho.mmo ti nibbdnam, nibbanagamini patipada ca. 
Kd nibbanagamini patipada} Cattdro satipatthdnd, cattdro 
sammappadhdnd, cattdro iddhipddd, panca ind/riydni, panoa 
baldni, satta sambojjhangdni, attlia samma maggangdni, ayam 
vuccati nibbanagamini pa^ipadd-. 2 
Kim nibbdnam? 

Sabbasankhdrasamatho, sabbupadhi-patinissaggo, tanhak- 
klbayo, virago, nirodlvo, nibbdnam. 1 

Upa. as usual gives the lakkhana, rasa, etc. He mentions 
dhammavicaya as its rasa. The anisamsas are the same as those 
of Buddhdmissati. 

1. See D. i. 212 (11th sutta, para. 3), Mvy. 231-34. 

2. This corresponds to sattatiinsa bodhipakkhiyadhamma of B. 
XXII. 33-39. 

3. This is identical with the passage on nibhanam in S. i. 136, A. 
ii. 118. 

Chap. vin. 3] 


Upa. like B. takes the following text for the exposition of 
the subject : 

Svdkkhdto Bhagavatd dhammo sanditthiko akaliko ehipas- 
siko paccattam veditabbo viiinuhi. 

The comment on the words of this passage is in many places 
different. For instance, the comment on the word sanditthiko 
is: maggdnaii ca phaldnan caanupubbddhigamatta, nibbanassa 
ca mag gaphaldnan ca sacchikiriydya sanditthiko, which is 
quite different from B.'s comment on that word given in VII. 
76-79. Similarly the comment on the words : ehipassiko paccat- 
tam veditabbo vmjiuhi is different although the words corres- 
ponding to B.'s ehi passa are met with here. 

Upa. goes into several other details as to how one should 
reflect upon the Dhamma. 

W hen the yogdvacara thus reflects in this way, his mind 
develops faith, becomes free from distraction, destroys hindran- 
ces, and the factors of trance gradually arise in him and the 
upacdra-samadhi is reached. 

The rest is as has already been said in the Buddhdnussati. 



often diff. 


Upa., as usual, explains the word sangha and gives the 
lakkhaiia, rasa, etc. As a text for his exposition, Upa. takes 
a passage which is almost the same as is quoted in VII. 89 by 
B. from A. iii. 286: 

Supatipanno Bhagavato sdvakasangho, ujupatipanno 

anuttiaram pxiiinakkhettam lokassa. 

The comment generally agrees with that of B. although, 
here and there, it differs. Upa.'s interpretations of the word 
stipatipanna are many more than that of B. The comment 
on dhuneyyo, pdhuneyyo is very concise. 


Upa. explains these terms and gives their lakkhana, rasa, 
etc. The texts taken for their exposition are the same passages 
from A. iii. 286-87 as are quoted by B. in VII. 101, 107, 115, 
respectively. Upa. gives no comment on the last two passages 
and even in his comment on the first, Upa. differs considerably 
from B. The latter is more prolix and scholastic. 

VII. 101-118 


At the end o£ the section on Devatdnussati a point is raised 
as to why we should reflect upon the merits of gods and not 
upon the merits of men. Upa.'s answer is, "because the merits 
of gods are superior, lead to superior heavens and excellent 
states. By dwelling upon excellent states, one's mind becomes 
excellent. So we should reflect upon the merits of gods and 
not upon those of men." 

The rest is as is said before. 



[Bk. 7.1.4— Y.19a.9; Tak. 429c— 435a. Cf. Vis. VIII.145-244.] 


[This whole section has many passages closely similar to the VIII. 
corresponding portion of the Vis., namely VIII. 145-244. In a45 " 2 
the first place it is to be noted that Upa. takes this section before 
the sections on maranasati and kdyagatdsati, which even accord- 
ing to the order in which they are mentioned in the chapter on 
kammatthama, 1 precede anapanasati. Another thing to be noted 
is that in this section Upa. uses throughout the words dn-phdn 
;£ $fit the Chinese transliteration of the word dndpdna 
although he has used j& ,g. above, in the list given in the 
chapter on kammatthanas (p. 38, Vim. 3. 6a. 6.)] 

As usual, Upa. explains the word dndpdna and gives the 
lalchliana, rasa, etc. While giving the anisanisas, he mentions 
several, which are given in B. in VIII. 238-244., particularly 
the passage from M.iii.82 quoted in VIII.239. The words 

cattdri satipatthdne paripxlreti [vijjd] 2 -vim<iittim paripureti 

are found word for word. 

The cultivation of this reflection is described substantially VIII. 145 
in the same words from S. v. 322 quoted by B. in VIII. 145: 
Idlla, bhikkhave, bhiWiu arannagato vd rukkhamulagato vd... 
papinissaggdnaipassl passasissdmi ti sihkhati. 

While, commenting on the first part of the passage, Upa. like 
B. goes into many details of the practice of breathing, as to 
how one should direct one's attention to the tip of the nose or 
the [upper] part of the lip, and that one should note the breath- 
ings only as they touch the body and not before or after. The 



VIII. 239 

1. See p. 38. 

2. This word though dropped here [7.1a. 11 is given later 
text [7.7.8.]. 



[Chap. vm. 4 

quotation from Ps.i.165 given by B. in VIII. 197 is given by 
TJpa. in an abridged foiin in 7.2.8-9. So also, the simile of 
a saw (kakaca) given by B. in Till. 201-202 is given by Upa. 
in 7.2.5-6 in an abridged form. 
VIII. 214-15 When the yogavacara has purified his mind from nine 1 

upakkilesas the patibliaga-nimitta appears. Regarding the ap- 
pearance of this nimitta, we find a very interesting passage, 
which corresponds to B.'s statement [VIII. 214] : tulapicu viya, 
vatadhdrd viya ca upatthdti ti ekacce 2 dhu. TJpa. also further 
refers to the appearance of the nimitta as dhumasikha, valdhaka- 
patala, and as what corresponds to pdmanga-sutta and ddru- 
sarasuci of B. VIII. 215. 

Gradually, by practising this breathing, one's mind becomes 
free from nlvaranas, and the trance is attained. All the rest has 
been already described in detail. 

And again, former teachers have mentioned four 3 ways of 
cultivating anapanasati : 

VIII. 190 (i) Ganand: to count numbers from one to. ten and not 

beyond ten; or to count from one to five and not 
beyond five. [Cf. B.VIII.190.] 

VIII. 196 (jj) Anubandhana: explained in exactly the same words 

as are used by B. in VIII. 196: anubandhana 
noma gananam patisamharitvd satiyd nirantaram 
assdsdnam anugamanam. 

(iii) Thapand : to direct the attention to the point where 
the wind of the breath touches the tip of the nose 
or the lip. 
(iv) Sallakkhava ; to reflect upon the nimitta and produce 
from this piti, sukha and other dhammas. 
Upa. also gives another alternative interpretation of all these 
four words. 
VIII. 173 While commenting on the word dkkhati, Upa. refers to the 

three sikkhas, adhisilasikkhd, adhicittasikkhd, adhipanndsikkhd 
and gives a passage which is identical with B.'s passage 

[VIII. 173] : yo vd tathdbhutassa samvaro, bahulikaroti. 

In his comment on passambhayam kdyasankharam assasissmi 
etc., Upa. following Patisambhida explains kdyasankhdra as 

1. Upa. does not tell us which these nine are. 

2. Dhainmapala commenting on the word ekacce simply says : eke 
dcariycl [Burmese edition p. 305).] 

3. Cf. B. VIII. 189 where eight are mentioned. 

Chap. vnr. 4] 


assasapassdsa. We can also trace in Upa. a passage that cor- VIII. 181 
responds to the synonymous words dnamand, wiamand.... etc 
given by B. in VIII. 181 as quoted from Ps.i.l84-8G. 

In his comment on pitipatisamvedl, Upa. uses words which VIII. 226 
correspond to B.'s dvihi dkdrehi piti patisamviditd hoti: 
arammanato ca asammohato ca. [|VIII.226.] 

Upa.'s comment on cittasankhdrapatisamvedl, assasissmmi ti VIII. 229-30 
...passambhayam cittasankhdram roughly agrees with that given ** 
by B in VIII.229-30. But that on cittapatisamvedi abhip- 
pamodayam cittam, samddaham cittam has nothing correspond- 
ing to B., while that on vimocayam cittam differs considerably 
fromB.'s comment. 

Upa., while commenting on vimocayam cittam says that if vm 9 ,, 
the yogavacara while practising the inhaling or exhaling finds q.d. ' 
his mind dull, he frees it from dulness; if he finds it distracted, 
he frees it from distraction; if he finds it elated, he frees it 
from rdga: if he finds it low in spirits, he frees it from hatred 
(data); if he finds it impure, he frees it from upakkilesas. 
1-urther if he finds that his mind does not take delight in the 
arammana, he makes it take delight in it. [When we compare 
this comment with that given by B. in VIII.233, we find that 
B. s comment is more artificial and scholastic, while that of 
Upa. is much simpler and more natural.] 

The comment on aniccdnupassi patiniss aggdnupassl 

assasissami also differs considerably from that of B (VIII VIII. 
234-36.) ' - 234-36 

Of these sixteen ways of cultivating the andpdnasati (as ex- viTl 237 
pressed in the quotation which forms the basis for the whole 
exposition of this subject), Upa. agrees with B. [VI1I.237] in 
saying that the first twelve constitute samatha and vipassand, 
while the last only vipassana. 

in VIII Sf f 6S th \ paSS£ T fro ^ M - iii " 82 ' <i u °^ 1* B. VIII. 239 
) \Z \ ' g h ° W th8 Ovation of andpdnasati 

tulnlls the four satipatthanas the cultivation of the seven 

iactors of enlightenment {sambojjhangdni) fulfills vijjdvimutti. 

Upa. makes another important remark that by cultivating 
the seven factors of enlightenment, vijja is perfected at the 
moment of reaching the Path, while the vimutti is perfected at 
the moment of the attainment of the Fruit. 

A point is raised as to why this anapanasati is called vitakka- vm gog 
upaccheda. The answer roughly corresponds to B.'s VIII.238. r.a. ' 
There is, however, in addition an interesting simile of a 



[Chap. vui. 4 

VIII. 1-41 

gandhabba who hearing any sound runs after it. Vitakka, 
like a gandliabba, runs after objects and therefore ought to be 
banished.' Vitakh"-u-paccheda is also illustrated by the atten- 
tive state of the mind of a man who is walking on a [[narrow] 

28. MARANASATI. [Bk. 7.S.G— 7.11a.9 ; Tak. 431c-432c. Cf. Vis. 
Upa. defines the word mar-ana as dyusankhdrassa upacchedo- 
and gives as usual the lakkhana, rasa, etc. He gives anisamsas 
many of which are the same in sense— though different in 
expressions — as those given by B. in VIII. 41. 

While speaking of the way of cultivating the practice of 
maranasati, Upa. says that a man should always think of the 
death of other beings and reflect that, like others, he also is 
subject to death, and has not gone beyond it. In this connection 
Upa. refers to Nieh-ti-li-po-tho-shiu-to-lo gJg**K5*£* 
which says : "If a man wants to reflect upon death, he should 
reflect upon a dead person and see the cause of his death." 
This reflection upon death is of four kinds : 

(i) With sorrow, as when one's beloved child dies, 
(ii) With surprise, as when a child all of a sudden dies, 
(iii) With indifference as when a corpse-burner {chava- 

dahaka) looks at a lifeless body, 
(iv) With insight (nana %} )— To consider all things as. 
impermanent and to produce disgust for worldly 
things (nibbidd). 
Out of these, the yogdvacara should cultivate the last. 
Death is of three kinds: 

(i) Sddhdrana-marana [^ JE], to which all living beings 

are subject, 
(ii) Samuccheda-mara-na, as that of the kilesas destroyed 

by an Arhat. 
(iii) Khanika-marana, that of the sankharas which cease 
to exist every moment. 
Also, it is of two kinds : 

(i) Akdlika: If a man dies before he reaches the middle 
age, either because of bis own effort, or because of 
others, because of disease or without any cause. 

1. That is bow I interpret it It is, however, liable to a different 
interpretation with different punctuation. 

2. Cf. Vis. VIII. 1 : ekabhavapriyapannassa jivitindriyassa upacchedo. 

3. 7.8a.4; Tak. 431c.22-23. See p. 62 above. 

Ciiaiv via. 4] 


(ii) Kalika : If a man dies, because life has come to an 
end, or because of old age. 
On both of these the yogdvacara should reflect. 

Moreover, former teachers have prescribed eight ways of 
reflecting upon death : [B. also gives eight, which are mostly 
the same except nos. ii & vii below] . 

(i) Vadhakapaccupatthdnato. One should think that 
one is being pursued by death just as a man who 
is being led to the post of execution always sees 
tbat he is being followed by the executioner. 
[With this compare B. VIII.9-13, where 
B. is more elaborate and gives many more 
illustrations. ] 

(ii) Akdranato. Without any cause or means that would 
prevent death from coming; just as when the sun 
and the moon arise there is nothing to prevent 
them from setting. 

(iii) VX fc 18. , by referring to persons of the past time. 
[This corresponds to B.'s upasamharanato 
VIII. 16-24.] The great personages mentioned 
here below have all died : 

(a) Great kings like Mahasudassana and JH ^' 


(b) Great personages with miraculous powers like 
Vessamitta and Vamataggi ( |g & jgl 3$. )= who 
could emit fire and water from their body. 

(c) Great disciples like Sariputta and Moggallana. 


(d) Paccekabuddhas. 

(e) Tathagatas. 

1. Mvy. 8557 gives Murdhatah (Murdhajatah?) corresponding to Tibetan 
bpyi-bo-Skyes JT^'S^ which is explained by S. C. Das in his Tibetan 
Dictionary p. 807 as 'an epithet of King Mandhata, a legendary ancestor 
of Gautama Buddha.' Apte's Dictionary gives the following information 
about Mandhatr — Name of a king of the Solar race, son of YuvanasVa 
(being born from his own belly). As soon as he came out of his own 
belly, the sages said : kam csa dhasyati, whereupon Indra camo down 
and caid : mirp. dhfcyati. The boy was therefore called Mandhatr. 
2. For these names see D. i. 101, 238-43; A. ir. 61. 

VIII. 22 
VIII. £3 

(iv) Kdyabahusddhdranato. [ ; Cf. B.VIII.25-26.] That tke 
possession of the body is considered to be shared 
with others like vdta, semha, worms, food and 
drink not properly digested, poisonous serpents, 
centipedes, lions, tigers, leopards, dragons, oxen: 
because when attacked by them the body succumbs. 
[A part of the quotation from A.iii.36 given by B. in 
VIII. 26 is clearly traced in this passage.] 

(v) Ayudubbalat-o. [Slightly different from B.VIII. 
27-28.] The life of beings is weak for two reasons : 

(a) Because the place or the abode (referring 
thereby to the body) is too weak, unreal, un- 
substantial, like a bubble, or foam of water. 

(b) Because the nissaya ( #c ) on which it de- 
pends is weak. We find in almost similar 
words, though in a different order, the words 
in the passage given by B. in VIII. 27, begin- 
ning with the words assdsapassdsupanibaddliam. 

(vi) Addhdnaparicchedato. [Cf. B.VIII. 34-38.] It is 
interesting to note that Upa. also says here that 
from times ancient, people have come into exist- 
ence [land gone] . Now no one lives past hundred 
years. [B. in the same connection limits the 
period of time to present days by adding the word 

[The long passage from A. iii. 305-06, quoted by B. in VIII 
36-37 appears here in a slightly abridged form.] 
(vii) Animittato. Because it has no nimitta there is no 

fixed time. [? Not quite clear.] 
(viii) Khanato. Upa. refers to a passage from the Abhi- 
dhamma, which corresponds to that quoted by 
B. in VIII. 39. l Excepting the second verse of 
the three verses and the last quarter of the third, 
the whole passage is the same. 

In this way nibbidd is produced, mind becomes free from dis- 
traction, and the trance is reached. 

A small paragraph is added about the distinction between 
aniccasanna and maranasati. 

1. This passage is traced to Nd.1.42. 

Aniccasaiiiid has, for its object, the coming into and passing N.C. 
out of existence of the khandhas, while maraiiasati concerns it- 
self with the disintegration of the indriyas. By the cultivation 
of the amccasailna and anattasaiiiia, one removes pride and 
egoism, while, by the cultivation of the maraiiasati, aniccasaiiiid 
and dukkhasaiiiid become firmly established. 

By the cessation of life mind ceases [to exist.] 

Maraiiasati nitthitd. 

Upa. as usual gives the explanation of the word kdyagatdsati yjrj ... 
as reflecting on the nature of the body and also gives the p. a. 
lakkhana, rasa, etc. He gives the anisamsas many of which 
correspond to those given by B. in VIII. 144. Upa. also includes 
among them aniccasaiiiid, anattasaiiiia, asubhasaiiild and ddi- 
navasaniid. When Upa. comes to the text giving the method VIII. 44 
of cultivating this reflection, he gives the same list of the thirty- id. 
two parts of the body as is quoted from M.iii.90 in Vis. VIII. 44. 

Upa, gives those different ways of reflecting upon this text yill. 48 
as are given by B. in VIII.48. He also adds that a dosacarita 
should reflect upon the vanna, a rdgacarita upon the disgusting 
nature [of the body] , and a paiiiidcarita on the dhatus. In this 
way he produces the nimitta. 

Further he should reflect upon the nature of the body in the N.C. 
following thirteen ways : 

(i) Bijato. As from a poisonous seed are produced n.C. 
different kinds of grass, such as kusa, so this body 
is produced from the impurities of the father and 
mother and so it becomes impure, 
(ii) Thdnato. This body is not produced from among xvi. 37 
flowers, or lotuses, but in the narrow place of the 
womb, which is an abode of many stinking im- 
purities. This corresponds to B.'s description of 
the womb from which a person is born, as given 
in Vis. XVI.37. 

(iii) Paccayato. This body, however taken care of, will 
never be regarded as precious like gold, silver, 
pearls, etc. or like candana or tagara and so on ; 
because it receives its nourishment from the im- 
parities in the womb of the mother. 

(iv) Nissandato. Like a bag full of fesces and urine, this XI. 22-23 
body is always leaking through the nine openings. P a - 



[Chap. vin. 4 

[With this compare B. XI. 22-23, especially the 
last quarter of the stanza in para. 23, navadvdrehi 
(v) jy ft Iff %■ The form in successive times. TJpa. 

refers to the first four stages of the growth of the 
foetus by the names of kalala, abbuda, pesi, 
ghana, and further traces the growth of the foetus 
from week to week up to forty-two weeks 1 when 
the child is born. In the twenty-ninth week the 
body is equipped with all the limbs. TJpa. also 
agrees with B.'s navanvutiyd lomakupasaliassehi 
(vi) Kimikulato. Upa. refers to eighty thousand 2 kimi- 
kulas, while B. mentions only eighty. [VIII. 25. J 
It is interesting to note thai; Upa. gives a long 
list of the names of different worms residing in 
different parts of the body. 3 They seem to be all 
transliterations of Indian names. For instance, 
a name like mun-alamukklia can be traced here, 
(vii) ijl 5£ • How one bone is placed in relation to the other. 
This agrees with B.XI.55. 
(viii) Kaldpato. This is in substantial agreement with 
B. VIII. 101 except that according to B. there are- 
three hundred bones in the human body excluding 
the thirty-two teeth, while according to TJpa. 
there are three hundred including the thirty-two 

(ix) Jigucchanato. 

(x) Asubhato. 

[Both these paragraphs roughly corres- 
pond to B. VI. 90.] However one may 
try to decorate the body with good 
clothing or by smearing it with scents, 
it never gives up its character of being 

1. For details see my article 'Unidentified Sources of the Vimutti- 
magga' published in the Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research 
Institute, Poona, vol. XV, parts III-IV (1934) p. 211. Also soe Appendix A. 

2. See Sik. p. 81 : a^Uitii krimikvlasahasra.'n.i yani tiffhanti antare; 
p. 129 : santi asmin k&ye aJifih hrimikulasahasrani. 

The names in this list of worms do not agree with the list found in 
the Atharva-veda, Bk. II. hymns 31-32, Bk. V. hymn 33, nor with the list 
found in Indian medical works liko A?tanga-hrdaya, SuSuta, Caraka, etc. 

3. See Appendix A where I am re-producing, with the necessary 
corrections, a substantial part of the article referred to above in note 1. 

Our. vm, 4] 


(xi) Nidhanato. It is the seat of many diseases and there 
are innumerable dangers (ananta-ddinavd) in the 

(sii) Akatannuto. It is like an ungrateful relative. How- 
soever one may take care of the body by feeding 
it with the most delicious food, it is sure to leave 
one and go towards old age and death. 

(xiii) Sa-pariyantato. It is sure to come to an end either 
by being cremated or buried, eaten up, destroyed, 
or disintegrated. 

When the yogdvacara has thus reflected on the nature of the 
body, his mind becomes free from distraction, the nlvaranas 
vanish and the factors of trance arise. 

[The whole of this section on Kayagatasati differs widely 
from that in Vis. TJpa, does not go into the detailed explanation 
of the thirty-two parts of the body. But he gives a detailed list 
of the names of different worms inhabiting the different parts of 
the body.] 


TJpa. explains the word upasama as kdyacittdnatti iftjana- Dis 
vippliantlana-nirodha. He also gives as usual the Jakkhana, raja, 

When he comes to the anisamsas, he gives exactly the same viii. 251 
as are given by B. in Vis. VIII. 251. The method of cultivating 
this reflection is to think upon the anisamsas. We do not here 
find the passage taken by B. as a text for his exposition. It is 
a great fortune to see, or hear the Law from, a monk who is des- 
cribed as silasampanno , samddhisampahno , panndsampanno, 
vimutbisamtpannc , vimuttindnadassanasampanno. In this re- 
flection, if a man attains the first trance, he reflects upon that 
aspect of the trance which has been abandoned by him 
(pahdnanga), that is to say, the nlvaranas; in the second trance 
on the vitakka and vicdra, and so on, up to sanild-vedayita- 
nirodlia. So also if he has reached the he thinks 
- upon the cessation of some kilesas ; if he has attained the Second 
Fruit, he thinks upon the cessation of the oldrika-kdmaraga- 
patigha and so on. When he reaches Arhatship. he thinks of all 
the kilesas which he has destroyed. When he attains nibbdna 
he thinks of the cessation of all things by vpasa-mdnussati. 



[Chap. vru. 4 

IX. 37 

IX. 1 


In this way he produces faith, has his mind free from distrac- 
tion, destroys nlvaranas and the trance-factors appear. He 
attains the upacdrasamddhi. 

Upa. adds pakinnakakathd in which he gives a summary in a 
sentence each of the mode of cultivating the first six anussatis. 

[31-34 APPAMANNA] 
[Bk. 8.1.5-8.23.5; Tak. 435a-439a. Cf. Vis. Chaps. IX & XI] 
31. METTA. [Bk. 8.1.5-8.8a.l0; Tak. 435a.-1437. Cf. B.IXth 
Upa. explains the word metta in this way. Just as father 
and mother have affection for their only child, have always 
friendly feelings for it, and have the good of the child at their 
heart, so one should love all beings and desire their welfare. 
This is metta. 1 He also gives the lakkhana, rasa, etc. He men- 
tions eleven anisamsas which are exactly the same aa are given 
in the quotation from A.v.342 given by B. in IX. 37. 

Before one starts the cultivation of this mettd^ one should 
first see the disadvantages in ill-will (dosa) and the advantages 
in forbearance (khanti). [Cf. Vis. IX. 1.]. TJnlike B. who 
merely refers to some passages giving the disadvantages and 
advantages, Upa. goes into all the details of these, showing how 
one should see the disadvantages of 'dosa and advantages of 
khanti. He refers to the simile of a saw (kakaca) referred to by 
B. in IX. 15, and further gives some beautiful similes to illus- 
trate how, if one goes on cherishing ill-will, one would be like 
(i) a man who wishes to take a bath but enters unclean 

and impure [water], 
(ii) a physician himself suffering from a disease, 
(rii) a painted va6e full of impurity but still uncovered, 
(iv) a man who eats poisoned food deliberately. 
(v) a man who does not use, even when bitten by a serpent, 
the antidote against poison which he carries in his 
Upa. also gives the details of the advantages of khanti. 
He agrees with B. in saying that when one starts culti- 
vating metta, one should not start with an enemy or a neutral 

1. Cf. Sn. stanzas 149-150. 

Chap. viii. 5] 



person but with oneself. Then gradually he should proceed to 
one who is dear, one who is neulral and lastly an enemy. It is 
interesting to note that while Upa. gives a list of good things 
which one may wish everyone to possess, he mentions the eleven 
advantages referred to above' and, among other things, adds 
birth in the Middle-Country (majjhimadesupapatti), meeting 
good people (sappurisa), freedom from dieease, long life and 
ntcca-sukhavitera. These additional things we do not find in B 
He may also wish to destroy akusaladhammas if they have already N.C. 
arisen in him and not to allow them to arise if they have not 
yet arisen Similarly, if the kusaladhammas have already not 
arisen in him, he should endeavour to make them arise and 
should cultivate them if they have already arisen in him.' If 
he can not have the feelings of metta for a majjhatta, then for 
some time he should wait and try to find out defects in him- 
!** Sh0ul(1 be ashamed of ] "^self. He should say that the 
Buddha practised metta even upon his enemy, while he himself 
can not practise even upon a neutral person. He should think 
of his good qualities only, as when one takes water, one removes 
dirt from it and then takes it. Then he goes into several details 
Of the ways and means to remove ill-will, among which we find 
the mention of kammauakata referred to by B. in IX.23,24 
and danasamvibhaga referred to by B. in IX.39. 

Upa. also refers to the slmasambheda mentioned by B in 
IX.40. Gradually he extends the feelings of friendliness to all 
people in one direction, then to those in the second, third, and so 
on to the whole world. He gives the same passage from 
Vibhanga p. 272 as is quoted by B. in IX.44. Similarly Upa., 
like a. (IX.o) says that it should not be practised upon a dead 
person because there the arammana itself is lost and so metta can 
not be produced. 

Upa. next deals with the following questions : 

(i) kirn miilam? (ii) kirn paccupatthdnamf 
patti? (iv) kd vipatti? (v) kirn drammanam? 

In answer to the first question he gives five things: ahbha, 
adosa, amolia, T dga and sammd-manasikara. Although B refers tt 93 
to the next three questions in IX. 93, his explanations are quite **" 

1. See page 73. 

2. See Vbh. 35-36; Vis. XIV.16. Vim. 9-Sa.l. 

(iii) kd sam- 



[Cuap. VIII. 

different from those of Upa. In answer to the last,- Upa. says 
that a satta is the arammana but he is careful to add that in the 
strictest sense, there is no satta Iparamalthato satto ndma na 
vijjati na labbhati) but only that which is conventionally called 
by the world satta. 

[Here now follows a digression to which B. has nothing 
corresponding in the Vis. \ 

In order to cultivate mettd for all beings, the Buddha while 
he was a Bodhisatta practised the ten paramitas of ddna, sila, 
nekkhamma, pdftnd, viriya, khanti, sacca, adhitfhdna, mettd and 

He refers to the four adhit-thanas 1 which are accomplised by 
the fulfilment of the ten paramitas. By the fulfilment of the 
four adhitthanas, he fulfilled samatha and vipassand. By the 
fulfilment of samatha he fulfilled all jhanas, vimokkhas, sania- 
dhis, gamapattis, Yamakapdtihdriya-samddhi 2 and Maha- 
karuiidsamddhi. 2 By the fulfilment of vipassand he fulfilled all 
abhinnas, patisambhidas, balas and vesarajjas. As a perfection 
of the pakatiiidna he fulfilled sabbaiinutandna. 

Upa. concludes this section with 'evam Bodhisattamahdsatto 
tnettam bhdvetvd anukkamena bodhim paripuresi.' 

(This whole section contains much that is not found in B. 
So also there is much in B. that is not found here. As, for ins- 
tance, Upa. gives no details such as odhiso pharand, anodhiso 
pharand etc., given by B. in IX. 49-52.] 

82. KARUfJA. 

[Bk. 8.9.1—8.10.2; Tak. 437a.— 437b. Of. Vis. IX.77-83.] 

Here also as well as in the following two sections, the simile 
of the father and mother looking at their only child with feelings 
of compassion, delight and equanimity iB used (Cf. B. IX. 1081 
to explain the words Icarund, muditd and upekkhd. Upa. gives 
as usual the lakkhana, rasa, etc., and also in addition sampatti 
and vipatti. Upa. agrees with B. in his statement about the 
paccupap(,hdna only, which according to both is vihimsd. The 
anisamsas are the same as in mettd. The order of the persons 
on whom it is to be cultivated in succession is the same, although 
Upa. does not mention piyapuggala. 

1. Sacca, cuga, upasama and pailila; see Mvy. 1581-84. 

2. Sco p. 29 and note 2 on the Bamo; also Bee Netti, pp. 99-100. 

IX. 1 


33. MODITA. 

The statement is almost the same as in B. 


Upa. gives the lakkhana, ram, etc., which agree with what IX 96 
B. gives in IX. 96. Then there is also a passage which gives the 
substance of B. IX. 88: mettddisu patiladdhatikacatukkajjhdnena 
payunataliyajjhdna vutthdya. . .purimdsu ddinavam disvd. . .upek- ix. 88 
khdya ca dnisamsam disvd. . . Similarly we can trace the expres- 
sions from Vibhanga 275 ekam puggalam neva rnandpam, na 
amandpam disvd quoted by B. in IX. 88. 

The order of persons, on whom it is to be cultivated in 
succession is different in Upa. After majjhatta, he takes veri 
and then piyapuggala, while B. puts veri last (IX.89.) A fine 
simile is given for the upekkhd which comes after the first three, 
mettd, karund and muditd. Just as a man, when he sees his 
relative coming back from afar after a long separation, rejoices 
and pays attention to him, but later, when he has been in his 
company for some time, he fails to pay the same attention, and 
gradually becomes indifferent ; so the yogdvacara leaves the first 
three bhavanas and proceeds to the fourth. 


[The whole discussion under this heading i3 very important 
and very much corresponds to B.'s IX. 103 — to the end of the 
IXth chapter.] 

One should start with the cultivation of these appamannas 
with only one living being as the arammana. He may practise 
them upon tiracchdnayoni, dussila, silavanta, kdvutsu nibbinna, 
sdvaka, paccekabuddha, and sammdsambuddha. 

A point is raised : why is it that the first three bhavanas have 
only the first three trances and not the fourth? The answer 
is that the sufferings of beings produce bydjjddo., ahimsd, and 
arati and they have as their appropriate remedy a mind with 
somanassa and so he practises mettd, karund and muditd, and 
therefore only the three trances are produced and not the fourth. 
He also gives the argument referred to by B. in IX. Ill, that 
vpekkhdbhumi is the fourth jhana. 

It is very interesting to note that here we find, as an alter- 
native view of some, the same passage from Atthakanipata (A. 
IV. 300) quoted by B. in IX. 112, to prove according to them 

IX. 103-124 

IX. 112 





IX. 108 

the view that all the appamaiinas can have the fourth trance. 
Upa. simply quotes the passage introducing it with the remark 
'moreover it is said' and makes no comment at all. 

Also another point is raised : why is it that these appamiinas 
are just four, neither three nor five? The answer is 'because 
they are the patipakkha of bydpada, vihesd, arati and patgha- 
nunaya' , which are only four. With this compare B. IX. 108. 

The appamanfias have one lakkhana in so far as they are the 
opposite of the adinavas, have living beings as their drammana, 
and have the thought of hitasuklia; but they have distinct 
lakkhanas in that the patipakkha, drammana, and hitasukha of 
each are distinct from those of the others. In this connection 
IX. 119-123 Upa. also refers to the Yellow-Garment-Sutta ( ;Sc <& ft ^> H 
Haliddavasanasutta) from which he gives the same passage (S. 
v. 119-121) that is quoted by B. in IX. 119. Upa. concludes this 
section with the remarks on this passage which closely agree 
with B. IX. 120—123. 


[Bk. 8. 13a. 9—8. 20a. 4; Tak. 438b. 25-440b. 13. Cf. B. XI. 
27— to the end of Chap. XI]. 

[It is to be noted here that Upa. gives this section before 
the section on dhdre patikkiilasaniid, just the reverse of the 
order of B. In the list of the kammatthanas mentioned by Upa. 
earlier' (4. 6a. 2-9) they are mentioned in this same order as is 
followed by Upa. here.] 

As usual, here also Upa. gives lakkhana, rasa, etc. He 
enumerates eight anisamsas which are almost the same as are 
given by B. in XI. 117, with the exception that instead of 
vdlamigayakkharalckhmddiviliappam amapajjamto of B., Upa. 
gives itthipurisavikappann jahati. 

Like B., Upa. also treats this subject in two ways, sankhe- 
pato, vittMrato. (Cf . B. XI. 28-44 and XL 45ff. 1. In his detailed 
discussion, Upa. follows the passages from M. i. 185, 187, 188, 
quoted by B. in XL 3.1. Upa. does not comment, as B. does, 
on the difficult words of the passages, nor does he give a de- 
tailed explanation of the thirty-two parts of the body. 

Upa. refers to the following ten-fold classification of the 
former teachers, while B. gives a thirteen-fold classification but 
does not refer to any teachers of the past. [B. XL 86]. 

1. See p. 38. 

XI. 117 

XI. 31 


iu addition. 

XI. 80, 100 


One should reflect upon the four dhatus in the following 
ways : 

(i) Vacanatihato. Two kinds of altha : sdvianna and XI. 81 
visesa are given as in B. XL 81. This is further 
classified into 

(a) Maliantapdtubhavato. This corresponds to B. XI. 97 and 
XI. 97 and, in addition, we find in the verses f ome l t , h . i j '. 1 S 
given by Upa. first lines of the first two verses 
and the third verse in Vis. VII. 41 and the 
first verse in XL 102. In these verses there 
is also a reference to the seventh sun. (Cf. 
Sattasuriyasutta, A. iv. 100-103.) 

(b) Although these mahabhutas are not real, they 
appear to bo real. These mahabhutas appear 
as man, or woman, long or short, or as a tree 
or a mountain. [Cf . Vis. XL 100 and the last 
two lines of XL 89]. 

(c) Just as a man possessed by spirits becomes 
either stiff or strong, light or moving, so this 
body becomes. 

(d) Upa, gives the interpretations of the words 
pathavl, dpo, tejo, vdyo and dlidtu, which are 
the same as are given by B. in XL 87. Upa. 
goes into more details. 

(ii) Kiccato (W. ?£). This mentions the functions of each 
of the dhatus, corresponding to what B. says in XI.93 under the 
rasa of each of these, 

(iii) Kaldpato. This corresponds to B. XL 88, although 

Upa. goes into many more details, 
(iv) Cunnato. This corresponds to B. XL 89. There is 

a passage which corresponds to imasmim hi sarlre p-a. 
majjhimena pamdnena..., though it does not agree 
with it in all the details. 
(v) Avinibbhogato. This partly corresponds to B. XL 
105. The explanation is more akin to XL 90-92. 
(vi) Paccayto. This corresponds to XL 111-12 though XI. 111-112 
there is a wide divergence in details, 
(vii) Lakkhanato. This corresponds to Vis. XL 93. XI. 93 

(viii) Sabhdga-visabhdgato. This corresponds to XL 106. XI. 106 
We can trace a passage that corresponds to B.'s: 
purimd dve garukatta s_abhdgd, tathd pacchimd 

XI. 87 

XI. 93 

XI. 88 

XI. 89 

XL 100, 


• B * VIMUTTIiMAGGA [Chap. vui. 5 

(ix) Ndnattekattato. This corresponds to B. XI. 95-96 
and also includes B.'s classification of sangahato 
(XI. 108) TJpa. adds much more to what is said 
in Vis. 

(x) B M ft- $*■ Like a wooden doll, like a puppet 
that is painted, dressed up and worked by strings 
within, is our body. It is made of these four 
great elements and stirred up by the wind-element 
walks or stands, .goes or comes, stretches itself or 
contracts itself, or speaks. The yogdvacara 
realises that there is no satta, no jlva, but merely 
'name and form'. "When he has delimited 'name 
and form' he knows the 'name and form' to be 
suffering, knows craving (tanha) to be the cause of 
suffering, its cessation to be the cessation of suffer- 
ing and the Eightfold Path to be the Path leading 
to the cessation of suffering. Thus, he sees into the 
Truths and sees danger in suffering. He has 
thoughts of anicca, dukkha and anatta. He sees 
advantages into the cessation of suffering. 
Upa. concludes this section thus : indriyesu, balesu, bojjhan- 

gesu susanthito hoti. Sankhdranimittd tassa citlam vutthahati 

amatadhatum sacchikaroti. 

[Bk. 8.20.5-8.22.9: Tak. 440b.l4— 441a.l0; Cf. B.XI.1-26.1 
As usual TJpa. gives the lakkhana, ram, etc. He gives the 
eight anisamsas which are given in almost the same words as 
are used in B. XL 26. 

He must cultivate the reflection on the disgusting nature of 
the food that he eats, the food for which he has to go about 
searching. He must reflect upon this patikkuhttd in the following 
five ways: [Compare B. XL 5, where B. mentions ten wavs ] 


# g # (?bydpdrato). This seems to correspond 
to gamanato and pariyesanato of B. XL 6-13. 
For the sake of food and drink, a man has to do 
many evil things. He has to leave sacred places 
and go for food through dirty roads to towns or 


(ii) Pariblwgato. This corresponds to Vis. XL 14-16. XI. 14-16 

(iii) Nidhanato. This corresponds to Vis. XI. 18. x *- 18 

(iv) Nissandato. This corresponds to Via. XL 22-23. yi - 22-23 
though TJpa. introduces much that is new. He P- a - 
compares the human body that is constantly oozing 
out to 'a broken jar in which wine is placed.' He 
also speaks of ninety-nine thousand pores of hair. 
One part of this nissanda is eaten up by worms, 
another is destroyed by fire, a third sustains the 
body, a fourth is turned into urine and a fifth into 
the trunk of the body, 
(v) ]>J. *% (? accumulation). This seems to corres- XI. 21 
pond to phalato of B. XL 21. Many expressions 
are substantially the same. 
In this way when the yogdvacara has practised upon the 
patikhllatd of dhdra, he is disgusted with food and gradually 
his mind becomes free from distraction, nlvaranas vanish, trance- 
factors appear and the upacdrajjhdna is accomplished. 

37. IKISCANN1YATANA. , TW have been al( . eady 

£■ described in the pathavi- 


Upa. concludes with some verses which are not quite clear. 
There is a mention of the name of a country called Po-li-phu-to : 
fflt M * £ Pataliputta. 

Here end the Thirty-eight Kammatthanas. 

1. See pp. 55, 56. 



[Bk. 9.1.5— 9.13a.3; Tak. 441a-444c. Cf. Vis. 
Chapters XII & XIII.] 

The yogdvacara having mastered samadhi can produce in 
the fourth trance five miraculous powers (abhtiifia) : 

(1) That of the body (corresponding to the iddhividha of 
B. XII. 2. 

(2) That of the divine ear (dibbasota). 

(3) That of knowing the minds of others (paracittavijdnand) . 

(4) That of remembering past lives {pubbe-nivdsdnussati). 

(5) That of divine eye (dibbacakkhv). 


The miraculous power of the body means the power of 
effecting change or transformation. Upa. gives the interpreta- 
tion of other miraculous powers also. Then he sets up the follow- 
ing questions : 

(A) How many kinds of the power of transformation or 
iddhi are there? 

(B) Who practises them? 

(C) How can they be produced? 

In answer to the question (A) Upa. mentions adhitthana iddhi, 
vikubbana iddhi, and manomayd iddhi which, alone are meant 
in this context, according to B. also (XII. 45). TJpa. also later 
mentions the remaining seven iddhis as outlined by B. (XII. 
26-44) from copious illustrative extracts from Ps. ii. 205-214 
(iddhikatha) . The explanation of these closely follows that of 
Ps. which is generally followed by B. also. The explanation 
of ariyd iddhi is given by Upa. in full following Ps. ii. 212-13.' 
It is also worth noting that though Upa. gives generally all 
the names mentioned as illustrations of those persons who had 
attained iddhis, we do not find in his work the name of Mendaka 
in the list of names of persons given as illustrations of puiinavat^ 
iddhi. Is it because his name is included under the mention of 
the panca Mahapuiind and so redundant? 

1. Also given in Pet. 218-233 (Bur. Printed Text 119-20). 

p. ii] 



(B) Taking dkdsa-kasina as the ninth or the fifth [kasina],' 
one masters the fourth trance, or one attains the fourth 
rupdvacara trance with some distinction, or one masters the 
fourth a second time and then one practises these iddhis. 

(C) In answer to the question as to how the iddhis can be 
produced, Upa. gives the same passage from Ps. ii. 205 as is Xir. 50 
given by B. in XII. 50: Idha bhikkhu chawdorsamddhi- ™" 

padlidna-samkhara-sa/mannagatam iddhipddam bhdveti Upa. 

comments on this passage also. While commenting upon the 

word viriya he gives the fourfold formula of right exertion as 
given in Vibhauga 325-2G, which is not given in this context 
either in Ps. or in Vis. The comment generally agrees with 
that of B. 

Upa. gives three small separate sections to illustrate adhit- 
thana iddhi, manomayd iddhi and vikubbana iddhi. He does 
this by giving the releveut passages from Ps. ii. 207-211, 
paragraphs 7-9. Upa. is as profuse as Ps. in the detailed des- 
cription of adhitthana iddhi. 

To illustrate the distinction between adhittlumd iddhi and 
•vikubbana iddhi, Upa. says : adhitphdndya iddhiya pakati- 
vannam appahdya adhipthdli, vikubbandya iddhiya pakati- 
vannatn vijahati. 


Upa. adds a small paragraph of pakinnahakathd in which 
he tells us that forms created by this miraculous power 
disappear at the end of the period of time set up previously 
by the iddhimd. If no such period is first delimited, then they 
may disappear as soon as he thinks so. He also says that a man 
created by this iddhi is without jivitindriya. As the aratnir.a- 
nas of the iddhividha-nana, he mentions nine : 

paritta, mahaggata, na vattabba; 

atita, andgata, paccuppanna ; 

ajjhatta, bahiddhd, ajjhattabahiddhd. 

B. in XIII. 105 mentions twelve kinds of arammanas, of 
which he gives seven as applicable to this iddhivid/handna 
(XIII. 106). They are the same as those given by Upa. with 
the exception that B. does not mention no, vattabba and B .d. 
ajjhattabahiddhd . 

1. See p. 90 below. 

XIII. 109 

XIII. 9 



The same questions as in the first abhinnd are set up. The 
yogdvacara having attained mastery in the four iddhipadas 
enters the fourth trance, gradually emerges from it and with 
his natural ear pays attention to sounds far and near, gross or 
fine, in one or the other direction. By practising in this way 
his mind gradually becomes pure and his sotadhdtu also 
becomes pure and thus is transformed into heavenly ear with 
which he can hear sounds human and superhuman, far and 
near. Former teachers have said that this yogdvacara first 
hears the sounds of worms residing within his body. [Cf. 
sordehanissitd panakasaddd of B. XIII. 3]. Then gradually he 
extends his sphere. 

Upa. also points out another view according to which 
this adikammika yogdvacara cannot first hear the sounds 
of worms residing within his body. He cannot hear the fine 
sounds which cannot become the objects of his natural ear. 
Upa.'s treatment is generally the same as B's, with some 
slight variations, as when he gives three arammanas only, 
paritta, paccuppanna and bahiddhd, while B. gives four adding 
ajjhatta to the three given here. [See B. XIII. 109.] Upa. 
adds that if the natural ear is lost, the divine ear also is lost. 
One can hear the sound in a thousand world-systems (lokadhdtu), 
the paccekabuddhas in still more, and the Tathagatas in 
countless ones. 


"With mastery in the fourth trance with dlokakasina, and 
with the divine eye produced, one knows the mind of others. 
The yogdvacara having practised the four iddhipadas attains 
mastery over his mind and purifies it. With alokakasina he 
attains the fourth trance and gradually emerges from it. He 
pervades his body with light, and, with the divine eye, sees 
the colour of his mind or heart, and knows its nature from the 

If there is soman-assindriya, the colour is like that of dadhi 

or Tiavanita. 

If there is domanassindriya., the colour is purple. 

If there is upekklundriya, the colour is like that of honey. 

If there is lobha, the colour is yellow. 


If there is dosa, the colour is black. 

If there is moha, the colour is muddy or turbid. 

If there is saddha and nana, the colour is [spotless] pure 

[Vis. XIII. 9 mentions only the first three cases of these and 
his remarks are: rattam nigrodhapakkasadisam, kdlakam 
jambupakkasadisam and pasannatilatelasadisarm.] 

Having thus understood the changes of colour in his own XIII n 
self, he should pervade the bodies of. others with light and 
notice the colour of the mind or heart of otheiB. Gradually he 
should leave the colours and know the heart itself. Then by this 
practice he comes to know whether a mind is sa-rdga or 
vitaraga, sa-dosa or vltadosa, and so on. [Cf. B. XIII. 11]. XIII. n 
This cetoparlyanana has eight arammanas which are the same 
as are given by B. in XIII. 110. 

The mind which is free from asavas cannot be known by an 
ordinary man (puthujjana). The mind of a being in the 
aruapdvacara sphere can be known only by the Buddhas. As 
in the last section, here also Upa. adds that one can know the 
minds in a thousand world-systems (lokadhdtu), the pacceka- 
buddhas in still more, and the Tathagatas in innumerable ones. 

Upa. gives three kinds of pubbenivdsdnussati, by the first of 
which he can at the most recall only seven lives, and by the 
second only fourteen, and by the third he can only practise 
the iddhipadas. [With this compare B. XIII. 27 where we 
find B. mentioning parikammasamddhiiidna or as some would 
call it atitamsa-iiana, which properly speaking is not pubbe- 

The method of producing this kind of miraculous power is XIII 29-25 
the same as is given by B. in XIII. 22-25. If he is not able to 
produce this power he should not give up efforts. He should 
again attain the trance. Upa. gives the simile of a mirror 
which we often find used in Buddhist books. If you cannot 
see your face in a mirror you do not throw away the mirror 
but rub it again and again until you are able to see your face 
in it. B. has used this simile in another place [XVIII. 1SJ 
though here he uses quite different similes. Upa. refers to 
Ayasma Sobhita who was considered as the chief among those 
who remembered the past lives. [See A. i. 25. B, does not refer 
to him.] 





[Chap, ix 

XIII. 73-77 

We have a passage which corresponds to B.'s XIII. 15-18. 
Upa. also speaks of the Titthiyas who can remember only forty 
kappas. Upa. very concisely states the case of Sammasain- 
buddhas who can recall the past lives and actions of others 
as well as their own ; they can also recall places. Others can 
recall their own actions only and little of others. The Samma- 
sarobuddhas can recall everything as they please, while others 
can do so only in succession (patipdti). The Sammasambuddhas 
may or may not enter upon samadhi for recalling the past lives. 
Even if they do not enter they can recall, while others can do 
so only by entering upon samadhi. 

This miraculous power is obtained by one who has attained 
mastery in the fourth trance with alokakasina as the ninth or 
the fifth [kasina] 1 , and by one who has a natural eye (i. e. un- 
impaired). It is of two kinds: (i) kammaphalavipdkanibbattam, 
and (ii) bhdvandnibbattam. [Compare sucaritakammanibbattam 
and viriyabhdvandbalanibbattam of B. XIII. 73]. By the 
first, one can see whether a treasure-box does contain any 
treasure or not. Having attained mastery over the four 
iddhipadas, he attains the fourth trance in the alokakasina, 
has alokasanna, makes no distinction between day and night and 
finds no obstacle for his mind. < His mind knows no darkness. 
He is above day-light. Gradually, by this practice he attains 
dibbacakkhu. Here we have also the passage which is commen- 
ted upon by B. in XIII. 73-77 : So dibbcim cakkhund visuddhena 
atikkantamdnusakena satte passati cavamdne upapajjamdne, 
hlne panite, suvanne dubbanne, sugate duggate, yatlid-kammu- 
page sabbasatte....TSp&. does not comment upon this passage. 
When a yogdvacara is thus able to produce the dibbacakkhu, he 
must have the kilesas destroyed. If he does not destroy the 
kilesas and if he has the dibbacakkhu, he falls from samadhi. 
If he falls from samadhi, his aloka vanishes, and the forms seen 
by him also disappear. [Cf . B. XIII. 9G : tato aloko antaradhd- 
yati, tasmim antarahite rupag.atam pi na dissati]. Among 
the kilesas mentioned, we find vicikiccha, micchdnussati, 
thlnamiddha, mdna, pdpikd vdca, samphappaldpa, ndnatta- 
sannd, and so on. After the kilesas are destroyed, if he cannot 
obtain mastery over the trance, his dibbacakkhu is low, the 
dloka is low, and the forms seen by him are also low. 

Upa. mentions five arammanas : paritta, paccuppanna, 
ajjhatta, bahiddhd, and ajjhattabahiddhd, while B. mentions 
only four omitting the last from the above list. He further xill. 103 
says that from this dibbacakkhu are produced the four kinds of diff. 
knowledge: (i) a?idgatamsandiha, (ii) kammassaliatandna, 
(iii) yathdkammupagaiiana, (iv) and kammavipdkaphalafidna. 
[With this compare B. XIII. 103, where B. mentions only two 
kinds: anagatamsahana and yathdkammiipagandna.] 

Upa. also adds pakinnakakathd, in which he says that if the 
yogdvacara practises samadhi with the intention of seeing or 
hearing, he sees or hears. If he has both the intentions, he 
both sees and hears. And if he practises with the intention 
of seeing and hearing, as well as, knowing the minds of others, 
he can do all the three. 

Lokiya abhiniias are sdsavd, rupapatibaddha and pothujja- 
nikd. If they are kusald, they are sekhiyd and pothujjanikd. 
Those of Arhats are abydkatd. 

These abhiniias are not produced in the arupdvacara loka. 


1. See p. 87 above. 



[Bk. 9.13a. 5-9.17.5. Tak. 444c-445c. Cf. B. XIV. 1-31] 

As usual, Upa. gives the lakkliana, rasa, etc. Upa. agrees 
with B. in his statement regarding lakkhaiia, and paccu- 
patplidna only. The anisamsas are innumerable but they should 
be known in brief. He gives them in several gathas in addition 
to the eleven anisamsas which he mentions later. Regarding 
lakkliana, rasa, etc., he also gives another alternative as 
follows : Vijjdlakkhand, saddhammappavesarasd, avijjandha- 
kara-viddKamsana-paccupatthdnd, catupatisambhidd-padaftlid- 
na. To explain paiiiid, Upa. gives a passage which is substan- 
tially the same as is given in Dhs. para. 16 [also cf . paragraphs 
20, 555.] : Panna, pajdnand, vicayo, pavicayo, dhammavi- 
cayo etc. 

When Upa. comes to the answer of the question 'katividhd 
panna' he starts with 





Dtividhd : 


Tividhd : 
Cijitdmayd 1 
Ayakosallam .. 
Apdyakosallam (. 

Upaynkosallam ) 16-18. 

The explanations generally imply 
the same idea, though they differ 
in expressions, as in B. XIV. 9-10. 

These correspond to B. XIV. 14, 
which gives quotations from 
Vibhanga 324-25. 

These correspond to passages from 
Vbh. 325-26 quoted in Vie. XIV. 

See Vbh.326 

Acayd : tibh umi-kusala-paiiiid . 

Apacyd : catusu maggesu paiina. 

Neva dcayd no apacyd : catusu bhumisu phalesu ca 
tisu bhumisu kiriya( 2^ ) - 
abydkate 2 ca paiiiid. 

1. See Pet. III. 78, VII. 261 (Burmew ed. 240). 

2. Apparently there is some incorrect reading here. It should be 
M m 'nstead of # ffi . See also 9.15a.5-7 which also reads in the same 
way but clearly we must have a reading which would mean abydkata, 
as is clear from Vbh. 

Chap. x. (C), (v)] 


(C) Catubbidhd : 
(i) [The same as in Vibhanga p. 328 : N.C. in Vis.] 

Kammassakatam ndiiam : dasasu thdnesu sammddit- 

thi. [Explained in Vbh.] 
Saccdnulomikandnam : khandhd aniccd'ti, dukkhd'ti, 

anattd'ti, evainddikd khanti. 
Maggasamangissa ndnam : catusu maggesu panna. 
Phalasamangissa ndnam : catuni plialesu panna. 

Kamdvacara-kusaldbydkate 1 
(ii) Kdmdvacara-paiiiid panna, etc. 

[The explanation is the same 
as is given of this classifica- 
tion in Vibhanga 329. The 
first three of these are given 
in the threefold classification 
in Vis. XIV. 15.] 

[Cf. Vbh. 329. 

Kdmdvacara-pa find 
Rupdvacara-pan nd 
Apariydpannd paiina 


Dhamme iidnam 

Jfc 4s?, anvaye ndnarn? of Vbh. 

Paracittavijdnanam (paricce nd- 
nam of Vibhanga) 

(£ %H, (P sammati- or sammuti- 
ndnani of Vbh.) 

Atthi panna dcaydya no apacaydya 

Atthi paiina apacydya no dcaydya 

Atthi paiiiid doaydya ceva apa- 
cydya ca 

Atthi paiiiid n-eva dcaydya no 

(v) Atthi paiiiid nibbidaya no pativedhdya 1 


Atthi paiina pativedhdya no nibbidaya | 

Atthi paiina nibbidaya ca pativedhdya ca f 

Atthi paiiiid neva nibbidaya no pati- 

* • I w Vis.] 

vednaya ' 


XIV. 15 

gives only 
the first 

N.C. in Vis. 3 
The explana- 
tions are the 
same as in 
Vbh. 329.] 

[The same as 
in Vbh. 330. 
N. C. in Vis.] 

as in Vbh. 
330. N. C. 

1. Here also Lho reading in this text is ^ jjg, but it must bo 
$S ffi- ^ or > " )e '"tended word is aby&kta. 

2. For this expression, cf. Abhk. V. 35; vi. 184; Madhy. p. 480; also 
cf. A.M.B. p. 254. 

3. Cf. Mvy. 1234-37 where the characters used for the second and 
the third of these are different. 

VIJIUTTIMAGGA [Chap. x. (C), (vi), (a) 


(vi) (a) Attha-patisambhidd "| 
Dhamma-patisambhidd 1 
N irutti-patisambhidd 
Pa(,ibhdna-patisambhidd j 

(b) Attha-patisambhidd: hetuphale iidnam. 1 
Dhamma-patisambhidd : hetumhi 

N irutti-patisambhidd : dhammaniru- 

ttdbhildpe iidnam. 
Patibhdna-patisambhidd : ndnesu iidnam. 

(c) Atthapatisambhida : dukkhe ca 

nirodhe ca ndnam. 
Dhammapatisambhidd : 

magge ca ndnam. 
Niruttipatisambhidd : 

ruttdbhildpe ndnam. 
Patibhanapatisambhidd: ndnesu ndnam. 

(d) [The same as in Vbh.294, referred to in Vis. XIV.24] 
1 The knowledge of the 

[The same as in Vis 
XIV. 21 and Vbh. 331, 
as well as 293.] 

[Vbh. 293 
cf. Vis. 
XIV. 22.1 

[Vbh. 293 
Cf. Vis. 
XIV 24 
from Vbh.] 

samudaye ca 

Pati b hdna-patisamb hi-da 

Buddhist literature as con- 
tained in the old nine-fold 
division such as sutta, 
L gcyya, veyydkarana, 

gdthd, uddna, itvvuttaka, 
jdtaka, abblvutadhamma, 
and vedalla. [All these 
I words are given in their 
(e) There is one more interpretation of the patisarnbhidas 
given by Upa. which begins with cakkhumhi iidnam 
etc., some details of which are not quite clear. [N. C. 
in Vbh. or Vis. in the corresponding portions.] 
(vii) Dukkhe ndnam: d-ukkha-sampayuttam 
Dukkhasamudaye iidnam : dukkhasamu- 

dayasampayuttam iidnam. 
Dukkhanirodhe ndnam : bhdvandsam- 

payuttam ndnanu. 
Maggasamangissa ndnam : patipada- 

[N. C. in 




[Bk. 10-1.5-10, 22a. 4;Tak. 445c-451c. Cf. Vis. Chapters 

The yogdvacara wishing to be free from old age and death, 
wishing to get rid of the cause of birth aud death and the dark- 
ness of ignorance, wishing to cut off the strings of craving and 
to attain the ariyd paiiiid, should find the means (updyd) in five 
things: Ehandhas, ayatanas, dhatus, hetupaccayas (or nidanas) 
and ariyasaccas. 


The khandhas are five : rupa, vedand, saiind, sankhdra and 


What is rupakkhandha? cattdro ca mahdbhutd, catunnaii ca 
mahdbhutdnam updddya rupam. 

Upa. explains the four mahabhutas as explained already by 
him in Catudhdtuvavatthdnam (p. 83). Under the upddArupa, 
he gives a list of twenty-six things which are the same as are 
given by B. in XIV. 36, except that there is an addition of two : 
jdtirupa and middliarupa. Thus Upa. says that the rupas are 
thirty in all. 

[B. in XIV 71 emphatically rejects' any addition to his 
number, twenty-eight. He does refer among other rupas, to 
these two rupas, but he says that jdtirupa is included under 
rupassa upacaya and rupassa santati [also see XIV. 6G], and 
middha-rupa' which is advocated by some (ekacodnam mat&na) 
is rejected by the Atthakathas on the authority of the follow- 
ing quotation from Sn. 541 : addha muni' si sambuddho, nattlii 
nivarana tava. Dhammapala in his comment on the word 
ekaccdnam says Abhayagirivdsinam. Buddhaghosa is very 
emphatic when he states : middharupam tava natthi yevd ti 
patikkhittam and iti atthavisatividham rupam hot\ anunam 

1. See also Abhm. p. 72, AbhmV. p. 30 which support B. 

2. See pp. 48, 123. 

XIV. 36 

XIV. 71 
this view. 



[Chap. xi. 1 

In the upadartipas, Upa. gives the words cakkhdyatana, 
sotayatana, ghdndyatana etc. instead of B.'s cakkhu, sota, 
gh-aiuj., etc. While explaining these organs of sense, Upa. 
refers to the various views about the same, among which he 
refers to one expressed by B. in XIV. 42 : apare tejddhikanam 
pasddo cakkhu, ■vivara-vdyu-dpa-pathvddhikdnam sota-ghdna- 
jivlia.-ka.ya ti vadanti. In the description of the cakkhdyatana, 
Upa. speaks of the three circles of the eye and the five layers 
of mamsa, lohita, vdyu, semha, and kliela within which it lies. 
The description of the cakkhuppasdda is given by B. [XIV. 48] 
in these words : 

Yena cakkhuppasadena rupa/ii manupassti 
parittam sukhumain etam ukasirasamilpamam 1 . 

Upa. also like B. ascribes tbis quotation to Sariputta and bis 
quotation is the same except that instead of ukasira of B. he 
uses the word ukd. 

Upa. gives a very clear distinction between the mahabhutas 
and the upddd rupas. The former depend upon one another and 
are produced all together; the latter are produced relying upon 
the former. The latter are not depended upon by the former, 
nor do the latter depend upon one another among themselves. 
This is beautifully illustrated by a simile. The mahabhutas are 
like three sticks 2 reclining upon one another. The upddd 
rupas are like the shadows of the three sticks. [10.3.6-7, Tak. 
446b. 3-4] . 

The yogdvacara should understand these thirty rupas in the 
following five ways : 

(i) Samuftltdnto. As they arise from kamma, utu, citta, 
dhdra, taken singly or in combination with one another. Upa. 
gives all details. (Cf. with this Abbs. Vlth chapter, para. 6, 
pp. 28-29.) 

(ii) Kalapato. Upa. refers to the various groups, such 
as cakkkudasaka, sotadasaka, itthindr>yadasaka, vatthudasaka. 
jivitindriyanavaka and so on. He knows how many of these are 
kammasamut.turui, cittasamutthdnd and so on. [Cf. Abhs. VI. 
8, p. 29]. To describe the cakkhusantati, Upa. gives the simile of 
the flow of a stream or "the flame of a lamp. [Cf. Abhs. VI. 10: 

1. See Abhm. p. 66. 

2. Cf. Vis. XVII. 78, 196. 

Chap. xi. 1] 



dipajdld viya, nadisoto viya 
Upa. here also goes into minute 

r upa lea Idpasa ntatl led m alo k 
ca abbocchinno pavattcti.] 

(iii) Yonito. With respect to the birth iu the kdmdvacara 
realm or the realm of opapdtika, duggatika or Brahmakdyilca 
beings and so on. [Cf. Abhs. VI. 10, p. 30]. 

(iv) Nanattato. 

(a) Duvidham : oldrika, sxikhuma; ajjhatta, bahiddhd; 
jlvitindriya, a-jivitindriya. Upa. gives the enu- 
meration of the rupas classified under these head- 

(b) Tividham: upddinna, x amipddiiiiw., and vikdra 
(or pabheda)-rupa ( gg & ) ; sanidassana-sappati- 
gha, anidassana-sappatigha, and anidassana-appa- 
tigha.* [SeeB. XIV. 74]. 

(c) Catubbidham: sabhdva, dkdra ( Jg seems to bo 
used for d/cdrd-vikdra), lakkhana, and pariccheda. 

(v) Ekattato. Sabbain, rupam na hetu ahetukam hetu- 


(The same passage from Dhs. p. 124-25, paragraph 584, quoted 

by B. in XIV. 72 is given here, with a slight variation in the 
order of the words.] 


Although one-fold in its characteristic of sensation, it is 

Thdnato duvidh 
Sabhdvato tividliu : 
Dhammato catubbidh 
Indriyato pancavidhd 

Kanhasukkato chabbidhd : 

kdyikd, cetasikd. 

sukhd, duklchd, adiikkliamamkhd . 
kusald, akusald, vipdka, kiriyd. 
sukhindriyd, dukklnndriya, soma- 
nassindriyd, domanassindriyd, 


each member of the threefold 
classification above is modified by 
the words sdsavd and anasavd. 
[Uppalti-]dvdrato sattavidhd : cakhhusamphassajd, sotasaviphas- 
sajd, ghdna-samphassaja, jvvha- 

samphassajd, kdya-samphassajd , 

manodhdtu-samphassajd, mano- 


is meaning the same as kammavipulcaja 

1. Upa. seems to explain it 

2. For the explanation of these terms, also see DhsCm. 46, Sph. 60-62. 

XIV. 74 

XIV. 72 



Upa. also further says that when taken in detail they are 
one hundred and eight.' He also shows how we get that 


Although onefold in its characteristic of perceiving the 
object, perception is 

Kanliasukkavasena duvidhd : vipariydsasaiind, avipariydsa- 

Akusalato tividhd: rdgasaiiiid, dosasahnd, vihesdsannd. 
Kusalato tividhd : nekkhainma-saniid, adosa-sahhd, avihimsd- 

Catubbidhd : 

(a) In so far as one does not know the real nature of 

things : asubhe subhasaiind, duklche sukliasanild, 
anicce niccasaniid, anattani attasaiind. 

(b) In so far as one knows the real nature of things : 

asubhasannd, dukkhasannd, aniccasannd, anatta- 

Vinaye paiica-sannd : asubhe subhasaiind, asubhe asubha- 
sannd, subhe asubhasannd, sublve subhasannd,vioikicchd- 

Arammanato cha sannd : rupasannd , saddasannd, gandha- 
saniid, rasa-sannd, j)hottohabbasannd, dhamma-saniia. 

(Uppatti-) dvdrato sattavidhd: cakkhu-sdinphassajd, sota- 
samphassajd, ghdna-samphassajd, jivkd-samphassajd, 
lidya-samphassajd, manodhdtu-samphassajd, vnanovi- 

Kusalato tividhd : nehkhamma-sailnd, adosa-saiiiid, avihvm- 

Evan ndnattasannd veditabbd. 


Upa. gives a long list of thirty-two sankharas and adds 
at the end: vedandsanndvivajjitd sabbe cetasikd dhamvma 
sanklidradhammo . In this list we fiird citta 2 and IS- 

1. Cf. Vis. XVII. 22S where we have 89 kinds of sensation. 

2. This word seems to be used for saddha as it is explained as 
cittassa paslidanam. 

N»_A DfAlA 

nivaranas. On the other hand, there are some from B.'s list 
in the XIV. 133-184, which we do not find in Upa.'s list. Each 
of this list is explained by Upa. by similes many of which are 
very appropriate. For instance, phassa is likened to the light 
of the sun striking the wall, adhimokkha to water flowing on 
to a lower level, viriya to a strong bull able to carry a burden, 
ditthi to a blind man touching and feeling an elephant, 
anottappa to a wicked king who fears nobody. Another simile 
is also to be noted. Ahirika is likened to a Canddla and along 
with anottappa is said to be agdravapadatthdna. 


Upa. gives only seven kinds of vinnanas : cakkhuviiindna, 
sota-viniidTia, ghdna-vinndna, jivh<i-vinndiba, kdya-viniidi.ia, 
mano-viniidna and manodhdtu-vinndna. One should under- 
stand these vinnanas in three ways : 

(i) V atthdrammanato : the five vinnanas have separate 
vatthus and separate arammanas, while manodhatu 
andmanoviTiTidnadhatu have the same vatthu, though 
the former has five arammanas while the latter has 
six. Upa. goes into many more minute details such 
as the internal or external vatthu or drammana, etc. 

(ii) Aravimanato : several details are given which are not 
quite clear. 

(iii) Dhammato : the association with different vinnanas of 
one or more of the following : vitakka, vicdra, piti, 
sukha, dukkha, domanassa, upekkhd, etc. 

The Section closes with a passage which is the same as is 
given at the end of the section on rupcn [ Dhs. para. 584. See 
above p. 97]. 

As a general concluding summary of the treatment of all 
the five khandhas, Upa. says that we must understand them 
from the following four points of view : 

(i) Vacantthato. The words for each of the five khandhas 
and the word khandha itself are interpreted. The interpretation 
of these words appears to be the same as is given by B. 
except in the case of the word rupa. 

(ii) Lakkbanato. The characteristics of each of the khandhas 
are given. Rupa, vedana, etc. are respectively compared to a 

XIV. 83- 



[Chap. xi. 1 


thorn that pricks, the disease of leprosy, a maker of images, 

the turning of a wheel and knowing the taste. 



[Cf. B 


Paricchedato . 

Panca khandhd : sabbe dhamma. 
Panca vpdddnakkhandhd : sabbe sdsava 

Panca dhammakkhandM: Silakkhandho, ■ 

samddhikkhandho, panndkhandho , 

vimutti kkhandho, vimuttindnakkhan- 

Sangahato. All the khandhas are classified under the 

headings of dyatana, dhdtu and sacca with a 

detailed enumeration. 

[Bk. 10. 12a. 4-10. 16. 5 ; Tak. 448c.-449c. Cf. Vis. XV. 1-1G-] 
Upa. gives the same twelve ayatanas as are given by B. in 
XV. 1 and gives the interpretation and explanation of each 
of them. His interpretation is more simple and more natural 
than that of B. He does not give the artificial interpretation 
as B. gives of the words cakkhu, sadda, jivhd or kdya. He 
interprets the word cakkhdyatana as the dhdtupasdda by which 
one sees forms, jivhd as the dhdtupasdda by which one knows 
the taste, kdya as that by which one touches. He explains the 
word mandyatana, as sattavinndnadhdtuyo, and the dhammaya- 
tana as tayo arupino khandhd, atthdrasa sukhuma-rupani, 
nibbdnail ca. 

These ayatanas should be understood in five ways : 
(i) Vacanatthato. Upa. interpretes the words cakkhu, sota, 
etc. as well as the word dyatana. He interprets the word 
dhamma as without life {nijjivaan), and dyatana as ariipadham- 
ma-dvdra-vatthu-adhitthana. Nc artificial interpretation of that 
word as given by B. is found here. 

(ii) Visayato. The eye and the ear do not come into con- 
tact with Kt«u> objects, while the nose, tongue and the body do. 
[Cf. B. XIV. 46.] Upa. also refers to an alternative view of 
some people who believe that the eye and the ear 1 do come into 

1. Dhammapala in his comment on this (p. 509) says: Sotam pi 
sampatta-visayaggahi ti he ci. 



contact with their objs^ jttJjVjXeir argument is that a magic N.C. 
incantation will be heard*TuIiess there is some obstacle, which NC 
is very close to the ear. Similarly, the eye must be reaching 
the object. For, beyond the wall one cauuot see. [That is to 
say it cannot reach the object and so it cannot see.] 

(iii) Paccayato. [This corresponds to B. XV. 35-39.] XIV. 35-39 

Here we find a passage corresponding to what is ascribed by 
B. to former teachers (pubbdeariya). From this B. quotes in 
brief in XV. 39. The passage given by Upa. is fuller and treats Q U0 ta- 
of the same subject. Therein it is shown that cakkhuvinndna Una i" 
arises because of cakkhu, rupa, dloka and manasikdra. 1 This fjji™™ 
passage agrees with that in B. except in the last two cases of f orm , 
kdijavinndiia and manovinficna. In the former case, Upa. drops 
the word pathavv from B.'s list, while, in the latter case, he 
gives mana, dliamma, adhimokkha, manasikdra instead of B.'s s - < *- 
bliavangamana, dliamma, manasikdra. Upa. goes then into 
the detailed explanation of these terms. 

(iv) Vithibhedato. [This corresponds to B.'s XIV. 115- XIV. 115- 

Upa. speaks of the three kinds of vithi which corresponds 
to mahanta, paritta, atip.aritta, and mentions the seven kinds of 
cittas in the mahantavithi. He further gives a very beautiful 
simile to illustrate the different stages in the process of cogni- 
tion by the eye. A king is sleeping in his palace 2 and the N.C. 
queen and a dumb maid-servant are there in attendance, the 
maid-servant shampooing the feet of the king. The gates of the 
palatial structure (town, as Upa. puts it) are closed and are 
guarded by a deaf man. The gardener of the king comes to the 
gate with a mango-fruit ( 3fg *g Jg ) ' n h' 8 hand with the inten- 
tion of presenting it to the king. He finds the door closed and 
knocks at it. The king hears the sound and wakes up. He 
orders the dumb woman in attendance to have the door opened. 
She instructs the deaf door-keeper, by means of signs, to open 
the door. The door is opened and the king sees the fruit, takes 

1 Cf. DhsA.59; also Sph. 84-85 (Comment on i.42) : Evam hi vijnana- 
kdranam pathyate — caksurindriyam anupahatam bhavati, visaya abha- 
sagato bhavati, tajjaica manaskdrah pratyupasthito bhavati; Sik. 225, 
where Ukas'a is added as one more contributory factor : Caksusca 
pratitya rupam cdloham tajjan ca manasikaraii ca pratltyotpadyatc 

2 For a closely allied simile see Atthasalinl, pp. 279, 280; also cf. 
Compendium of Philosophy p. 30. 



[Chap. xi. 1 

a knife in his hand, while the dumb woman holds the fruit in 
her hand. In come the courtiers. The courtiers take the fruit 
to the queen who washes it, and seeing whether it is ripe or 
unripe, gives a piece to each of the courtiers and then finally 
gives it to the king. The king tastes the fruit and praises or 
condemns it, ac the case may be, after he bas eaten it and then 
goes back to sleep. 

The simile is further explained with its application. 
Bhavanga-citta is. like the king who is asleep. 

Cakkhudvdre ruparam- is like the gardener who takes the 
mango-fruit and knocks at the 

(?) is like the king's hearing the 
sound and instructing the atten- 
dant to have the door opened, 
is like the dumb woman instructing 
the man by means of signs to open 
the door. 

is like the king's seeing the fruit 
after the deaf man has opened the 

is like the king's taking the knife, 
the woman's holding the fruit, and 
the coming in of the courtiers, 
is like the courtiers' taking the 
fruit and giving it to the queen, 
is like the queen's washing the 
fruit, [seeing] whether it is ripe or 
unripe and giving a piece to each of 
the courtiers(P) 2 and then giving 
one to the king. 

is like the king's eating the fruit, 
is like the king's praising or con- 
demning the fruit after he has 
eaten it. 

is like the king's going back to 


&• » m w * 

& $ w #• <6 m' 

A vajjana-citta 

Cakk hu-viniidna 



J avanacitta 


1. The meaning of this expression is not clear. Evidently this stage 
corresponds to bhavanga-calana and bhavanga-upaccheda. See Vis. 
XIV.115 and Abhs. IV.3, pp. 16-17. 

2. This also is not quite clear. 

Chai\ xi. 1] 



Upa. also further speaks of the other vithis as well as that in 
the mcv.odvara. 

(v) Sangahato. Upa. tells us how these ayatanas can be 
distributed under the classifiction of the khandhas, dhatus 
and saccas. 


[Bk 10.1G.G-10.17.2 : Talc. 449c-450a. Cf. Vis. XV. 17 
to the end of XVth Chap.] 

Upa. gives the same eighteen kinds of dhatus 1 given by B. 
in XV. 17. He explains those terms. There is so much matter 
in this section that is found in the last section as well. 

These dhammas are called khandhas because they are grouped 
together, ayatanas because they are dvdralakkhand, and dhatus 
because they are sabhavalakkhana. [Cf . Vis. XV. 21 : attano 
sabhdvam dhdrenti ti dhdtuyo.] 

Upa. gives a quotation ascribed to the Blessed One which 
purports to say that a man of keen intellect speaks of the Truth 
of Suffering with the help of khandhas, a man of medium in- 
tellect speaks with the help of ayatanas, and a man of dull in- 
tellect with the help of dhatus. 


[Bk. 10.17.3— 10.23a.4; (end of Bk. 10) ; Tak. 450c; Cf. B. 
XVIIth Chap.] 

[It is difficult to say what the original expression for g $$ 
might have been. For, the same characters are used for niddna, 
paticcasamuppdda and hetu-paccaya. (See My. 229, 9210, 2241, 
22G7). So these characters may as well have been used for 

It may bo noted that Upa. gives the section on Hetupaccayas 
which corresponds to B.'s on Paticcasamuppdda before the sec- 
tion on saccas, an order which is just the opposite of B.'s.] 

We find here the same passage from S. ii. 1. as is quoted by xvn 2 
B. in Vis. XVII. 2: Avijjdpaccayd sankhara, sankhdrapaccayd 
■vinndnam, etc. We also meet with another passage which gives 
the negative side of the same formula. Avijjdvdrodhd sankhdra- 
JUTodho, sankhdrartirodhd viiindnanirodho, etc. [Cf. S. ii. 4.] ' ' 
B. does not give this passage. 

1 iWith this compare Sph. 58-59, (comment on stanza 27). 


[Chap. xi. 1 

Upa.'s explanation of these words is quite simple and savours 
of no scolasticisin of B. He also gives a protracted simile to 
explain (he inter-relation of the twelve factors of the Law of 
Causation — the simile of the seed growing into a tree and then 
into a seed again. 

Here are given below the twelve factors with their explana- 
tion and illustration : — 

Avijjd : 

Sankhdrd : 

Vinndnam : 

catusu saccesu aiindiiam ; 


putisandhikkhane pavattitai 

cittavi, ; 
N dmarupam, : cibtacetasikd dhammd, 

kalalarupaii ca ; 
Saldyatanam : cha ajjhatika-dyatandni; 

Phasso : cha phassahdyd ; 

Vedand : cha vedandkdyd; 

TanhS : cha tanhdkdyd ; 

Updddndm: cattdri upaddndni; 

Bhavo: kdma-riipa-arupabhava- 

samut^hdpakam kammam; 
Jdti: blmve khandhdbhinibbati; 

Jara : khandhdnam paripdko ; 

Maranam : khandhdnam viddhamsana- 
paribhedo ; 


is compared to j|§ 

paddy (villi). 

are compared to a 

seed (bija). 

is compared to a 

sprout (ankura). 

is compared to a 

leaf (patta). 1 

is compared to a 

branch (sdkha). 

is compared to a 

tree (rukkha). 

is compared to a 

flower (puppham). 

is compared to 

juice (rasa). 

is compared to [the 

ear of] rice (sdli 

or tandula). 

is compared to a 

seed (bija) again. 

is compared to a 

sprout (ankura). 

for this no simile 

is used. 

for this no simile 

is used. 

Upa. sliows by this simile that this is a round of which the 

beginning or the end is not known. B. gives no such one simile 

for the whole. In XVII. 303, where 3. gives, different similes 

1 See Mvy. 433,4942. 

Chap. xi. 1] 



XVII. 284, 

for the different factors, he uses the simile of a bija and ankura 
for bhava and jdti. 

Upa. also raises (he question: kimpaccayd avijjd? In 
answer he says: 

(i) avijjd yeva avijjd-paccayo.' Aud further he says that 

(ii) all kilesas also are the paccayas of avijjd and to support 
his statement he gives the quotation : dsavasamudayd avijjd- 
samud,ayo. [Cf. B. XVII. 3G, quoting from M. i. 54.] 

Upa. then raises some ten questions which he briefly answers. 
Of these twelve factors, avijjd, tanhd and updddna are the three 
kilesas, sankhdrd aud bhava are the two kanimas and the 
remaining seven are vipakas. Avijjd and sankhdrd are in the 
past, jdti and jard-maruna are in the future, while the rest are 
in the present. [With this compare B. XVII. 234, 287 which is 
exactly the same.] This succession of old-age and death should 
be known to be without a beginning. These twelve dhammas, 
because they are the causes of one another in succession, are 
the hetupaccaya-samuppdda or paticcasamuppdda. The differ- 
ence between the twelve hetupaccaya-angdni and samup2>an- 
nadliammd is that the hetupaccayas are the different kinds of 
sankharas about which, when they have not yet come into 
existence, we cannot say that they are sankhata or asaivkhata; 
while they come into existence, they become the hetupaccaya- 
dhammd or paticca-samuppadadhatmand (? Jjl |g f| Sff); ! 
when they have already come into existence they are sankha- 
ta.' Upa. also speaks of the hetupaccayas as aambhlrasabhd- 
vd. [Cf. B. XVII. 11, 304-314.] 

Further these hetupaccayas should be known in seven ways : 

(i) Sandhito. There is one sandhi between sankharas and XVII. 288- 
vinnana, another between vedand and tanhd and the third 89 
between bhava and jdti. [Cf. Vis. XVII. 288-89.] B. speaks 
of hetuphalasandhi, phalahetusandhi, and hetuphalasandhi . 
Upa. calls the first and the third sandhis hetuphala- 
sandhi and bhavasandhi, while the second is phalahetusandhi 
and not bhavasandhi. Upa. goes into a long discussion of the XVII. 136- 
bhavasandlvi and describes how one individual passes from one 45 
existence to another. In that connection he speaks of karmna, 

i. Cf. Netti, v9: Hi avijjd avijjuya hctu, ayoniso manasilcuro paccayo. 

2. This is not clear. 

3. Cf. S. ii. 26. 




[Chap. XZ. 1 





XVII. 298 


kammanimitta, gabi aud gatinimitta, while B. speaks of only 
three with the omission of gati. [Cf. B. XVII. 136-45.] We 
also meet with here [Vim. 10.21.4] the famous simile in 
Buddist literature, — the simile of one lamp kindling another 
lamp. There is also a description as to how the material form 
[of an individual] is produced. [Cf. Vis. XVII. 155-5C] 

(ii) Cabusanlchepato. This corresponds to B.'s XVII. 290 
although we do not find there the terms used by Upa., namely — 
atitakam/makilesa, paccuppannaphalavipdka, paccuppanna- 
kamma-kilesa, and andgataphalavipdka. 

(iii) Visatiya dkdrehi. This is in substantial agreement 
with B.'s XVII. 291-97, although Upa. is very brief. We find 
in this connection the quotations from Ps. i. 52, given by B. in 
XVII. 292, 29G, 297. There seems to be something wrong 
with the Chinese Test, for instead of the closing line in the 
quotation in the para. 292, we have the closing line of the 
quotation in the para. 294, but the whole passage correspon- 
ding to the quotation in para. 294 is missing. Similarly, 
there is some variation in the last quotation. 

(iv) Cahkato. Avijjdpaccayd sanklidrd...jdtipaccayd jard- 
maranam. Evam etassa kevalassa d-iokkhak/ch/mdhassa samudayo 
hoti. It is ignorance of this heap of suffering that is avijjd. And 
from avijjd there arise sankharas and so on. [Cf. B. XVII. 298, 
which is quite different.] 

(v) yi ^g (?). Avijjd leading forward to the future and jard- 
marana in the other direction to the past. 

(vi) Paricchedato. 
(a) Duvidlta: 
Lokiya : 
Lokuttara : 

[N. C] 

that avijjd is at the beginning ; 
that d-ukkha depends upon d-ukkha, 
saddhd upon saddhd, and so on. 
[Does this correspond to the quota- 
tion from Pfn. given by B. in 
- XVII. 84 ?] 
(b) Catubbidha ■. 

kammakilesato hetu : as avijjd is at the begin- 

bijato lietu: as in the relation of a seed 

and sprout. 

bhava-iukanti(~$ f£): £[] ft £ Hke opapdtilcarupa (?). 

Q ^ 3$ As in things born together, 

(? sahajata-kamma-hctu) as the earth and snow, 
mountain and ocean, the 
sun aud moon. 1 

(vii) Lakkhanasangahabo : the twelve factors are distri- n.C 
buted over the classification of being characterised as khandhas, 
ayatanas, dhalus and saccas ; as, for instance, so many of the 
twelve factors are included in the sankhdrakkhaiidha and so on. 
In the same way with the rest. 

1. The idea is not clear. 



[Bk. 11.1.5— ll.Ca. 8; Talc. 452a-452b; Cf. Vis. XVI. 13— end of 
the Chap.] 


Cattari ariyasaccdni : d'ukkham, dukkha-samudayo, dukkha- 
nirodho, dtikhha-nirodha-maggo. 

These four truths are described in the same words from 
Vibhanga as are quoted by B. in XVI. 31. The comment on 
the text of the First Truth : Jati pi dukkha. jara pi dukkha, 

sankhittena panca updddnakkhandhd dukkha, generally 

agrees— although it is very brief— with that of B. XVII. 31-60. 
except in a few cases, as on the word jara. Upa's comment 
on that word, if rendered in Pali, would be as follows : 
Dhdtunam paripdkabhdvd bala-rupa-indriya-sati-panndnam 

After giving the comment on this textual passage, Upa. 
proceeds to the classifEcation of dukkha. It is 

(a) Duvidha ; 

vatlhudukkha : jdtidvkkham,maranadukkliam, appiydnam, 
sampayogo, piyanam vippayogo, yam pi iccham n-a 
labhati tarn pi dukkham, sankhittena panca upadanak- 
khandha dukkha. 

sabhdvadukkham : sokadukkham,parideva-dukkham, doma- 
nassa-dukkham, npdydsa-dukkham. 

(b) Tividha: 

dukkhdukkham : kdyikam, cetasikam. 

viparindmadukkham : sdsavd sukhd vedand 

viparinam a-vatthw. 
sankhdradukkham : panca upddanakkha- J 

The comment on the teyt of the Second Truth generally 
agrees with that of B. XVI. 61. With reference to the Third 
Truth, Upa. is very concise. He merely gives the text and 

[Cf. Vis. 
XVI.35 ; 
see also 

Chap. xr. 2] 


XVI. 75-83 

gives no comment on it. He gives no discussion on Nibbana 
as B. gives in XVI. 6T-70. He, however, like B. XVI. 63, 
states that the Blessed One preached about the Cessation of 
Suffering by way of the Cessation of the Origin of Suffering. 

When Upa. comes to the Fourth Truth he explains the 
Eightfold Path with two alternative interpretations of each of 
these factors of the Path. His interpretation often differs from 
that of B. [XVI. 75-83] . Here it follows : 

Samma-dipthi : Catusaccesu ndiiam ; Nibbdne iidi.iadassanam. 
Sammd-san- tividlia-kusala-san>- Nibbdne sankappo. 

kappo : kappo ; 

Sammd-vdcd; catubbidhd pdpaca- 
ritd virati ; 
Sammd-kavi- tividha pdpacaritd : virati ; 

Sammd-djivo : micchdjivd virati ; 
Sammd-vdydmo : cattari sa/mmuppa- 

dhdndni ; 
Sammd-sati : cattari 

■ndni ; 
Sammd-samddhi : cattari jhdnani ; 

Then he goes on to show how the Noble Eightfold Path 
covers all the thirty-seven bodhidhammas. [Cf . Vis. XVII. 86 
and XXII. 33-38.] 

Upa. raises the same question as is raised by B. in XVI. 27, XVI. 27-28 
as to why these Truths are just four, neither three nor five. P- a - 
The answer of Upa. agrees in general with that of B. in the 
first half of XVI. 28. B. gives several other reasons in addition 
to the two of Upa. 

These Truths should be understood in eleven ways: 

(i) Vacanatthato. Upa. gives the interpretations of the XVI - 2Z 
words ariya-sacca, dukkha, samudaya, nirodha and magga. 
His interpretations are, as usual, more simple and more natural. 
[This corresponds to B. XVI. 16-22] . 

(ii) Lakkhanato. This corresponds to B. XVI. 23, where XVI. 23 
B. also gives rasa, and paccuapafthana. Upa. agrees with B. p ' a " 
only in part. 

(iii) Kamato. [compare B. XVI. 29, 30.] Upa. gives two XVI. 29-30 
reasons of which only the first oldrikatthena is common with 
that of B.'s oldrikattd. The second reason given by Upa. is 

micchd vdcdya pahu- 

micchd kammassa 

micchd viriyassa 

Nibbdne sati. 

Nibbdne ciltekaggatd. 


[Chap. xi. 2 



sacchikdtabbatthena. Upa. gives a very fiue simile to illus- 
trate the appropriateness of the order of these Truths. Just 
as a skilful physician first sees the symptoms of a disease, 
then hears the cause of it, and then seeing- the necessity of 
the cure of the disease prescribes a suitable medicine; so the 
four Truths may be known as coming in the same order. 

(iv) Sankhepato. There does not appear to be any para- 
graph in Vis. except a part of XVI. 85, which expresses an 
idea similar to that expressed in the last of the three cases 
under this heading. Upa. explains in the first two cases 
the denotation of these Truths and in the last case he tells 
what these Truths can accomplish. Concerning the last he says : 
Dukkham sakkdyaditthidvdra-pidahanasamattham, samudayo 
ucchedaditthidvdra-2>idahanasamattho, nirodho sassataditthi- 
d-vdra-pidapanasamattho, mag go micchadifthidivara-pidahana- 
sarattho. [Cf.B. XVI. 85 where instead of micchaditthi B. has 
akiriya-ditthi . 

(v) Upamato. We find here the similes of visarukkha, 
orimatira and of bhdra as given in B. XVI. 87, where B. gives 
several others in addition. 

(vi) Paricchedato. 

Cattdri saccdni: Sammuti-saccam, pacceka-saccam (? 

4r 4f- W ) paramattho-saccavi., ariya-saccam. 
Here it is the last that is meant, 
(vii) Ganandto. This corresponds, in part only, to B. XVI. 
86. There B. gives the various dhammas that are included 
under the Four Truths. Upa. gives the -various alternatives 
ot the different dhamrnas that are covered hy the first two 
Truths, while the last two are invariably the cessation o£ what 
is included under the second, and the way to the cessation 
of the same, respectively. 

(viii) Eltattato. This is given to be of four kinds : 

saccatthato, aviiathatthato [Cf. XVI. 102], 
dhammatthato, sunntatthato [Cf. Vis. XVI. 90]. 

(ix) Ndnattato. 

(A) Durvidha : 

(a) lokiyam: sdsavam, samyoja?iiyam...[D]iB. para- 
graph 584)... sankilesikam. 
lokuttaram: andsavam. . .(just the opposite of 
above)... asankilesikam. 

Chap. xi. 2] 


(b) sankhata: ti/ii saccdni. 
asankliata : Nirodha-saccam. 

(c) arupa : tint saccdni. 
sarupa: dukkha-saccam. 

(B) Catubbidha: 

(a) akusala : 
kusala : 

. abydkata : 
abyakata : 

(b) parinneyyam : 
pahdtabbam : 





dukkha-saccam 1 

XVI. 28, 

samudaya-saccam i [Cf.B. XVI. 
sacchikdtabbam: Nirodha-saccam. j"28, 102.] 
bhdvetabbam : Magga-saccam. j 

(x) Kama-vitthdrato. The following will represent the 
classification of the four Truths under this heading : 

dukkha samudaya Nirodha Magga 

Ekauidha : sa-viniidna- abhimana pahdna of kdyagatd- 
ka-kdya what is men- sati. 

tioned under 

Duvidha : 


bhavatanha ,, 

, , vipassand. 

Tividha : 



sila, samd- 


salamuldni ,, 

,, dhi, paniid. 



cattdro vi- 

cattdro sati- 

(? # fli ]8) 

palldsa ,, 

,, paftlidnd. 


paiica, gatiyc 

pancai niv".- 

paiica indri- 

randni ,, 

,, ydni. 

Chabbidha : 

cha 2>hassd- 

cha tanhd- 

cha patinis- 


kayd ,, 

,, saggadhammd 

SattawidJia : 

satta viiind- 

satta anu- 

satta bojjhan- 


sayd , , 

,, gdni 

Atthavidha ■ 

attha loka- 

attha micohd 
antd „ 

,, mag go 


Navaoidlia : nava sutta- nava tanhdmu- 
vasa lakd dhamma 

[Chap. xi. 2 

pah ana nava samimd- 
of what is manasikdra- 
uientioned mulakd- 
uuder dhamma' 


Dasawid.ha : dasadi.idcariyd dasa samyo- 

( + # ?T ) jan-dni ,, 

(xi) Sangahato : ' 

(a) Kliaivdha-sangalia; dukkha is included under all the 
five khandhas, swmudaya and Magga under sankhdrakkhandha 
and Nirodha uuder no khandha. 

(b) Ayatana-sangaha: dukklca is included under all the 
twelve ayatanas, and the remaining three under dham- 

(c) Dhutu-sangalia: dukkha is included under all the 
eighteen dhatus, while the remaining under dhamma-dhdtu . 

In this way one understands the noble Truths. These are 
called the ariya-sacca-updyd. 

1 Cf. S. V. 91. Cf. Vis. XVII. 107 ayoniso-ma^sikSra-mulaka. 

2 For this threefold sangaha, see Dhatukatha 1, 2 ff. and its commen- 
tary, p. ng; also compare Pet. VI. 124 (Bur. ed. 176), Buddhanam 
magavcnt&nam sasaMm tividhena sangaham gacch.ati—khandhesu 
dhatusu, ayatanesu ca; also see Sph. 37 (comment on stanza 14)-' 
Bhagavato Vineyavadattisro deiandh : skandhayatanadhstudctajiah. 




[131c. ll.Ca.9-11.19a.8 (end of Bk. 11) ; Tak. 453b-45Gc- 

Cf. Vis. Chapters XVIII, XIX, XX in part and XXI. 1-28]. 


The yogdvacara, when he has understood the khandhas, dhatus 
ayatanas, hetupaccayas and saccas, should know that there" xvm 19 
exist these things only and that there is no satta, no jvva, that 88 
there are only ndma and rupa, that one does not consist of the 
other, and yet one is not independent of the other. [Compare 
Vis. XVIII. 33, 32 : Ndmam rupena suiinam, mlpam. ndmena 
sumiam; annamannam nissayeva pavattati. To ' illustrate 
this nature of ndma and rupa, Upa. has given here the 
simile of a drum and sound, as well as that of a blind 
man and a lame man. [These similes are given in full in Vis 
XVIII. 33,35.] Upa. dilates much upon the distinction 
between ndma and rupa. The former has no body, is flighty 
and very easy to move, while the latter has body, and slow to 
move. The former can think, know and understand, while the 
latter cannot do so. The former can know 'I walk, sit, stand 
or he down,' although it cannot do so itself. The rupa alone 
can do these movements. Similarly ndma cannot do the actions 
01, drinking, tasting, etc. which can be done by the rupa 
alone, but it can know 'I eat, drink, taste, etc' Thus he knows 
that it is only the sankharas that exist, and they are nothing but 
suffering. When he has this insight into suffering (dukkhe 
nanann), there is yathdhhuta-ndnculassana-vimddhi or ndma- 
rupa-vwvatthanam. [Cf. B. XVIII. 37, XX 130]. 


Even after this if the yogdvacara has still any thought about XIX 
satta, he should further reflect upon the causes (niddna) of fifth ch. 
Buffering He should reflect upon the Law of Causation or diff - 
of Dependent Origination, both in the regular order as well as 
in the reverse order. He may reflect upon this Law of Depend- 
ed Origination in full, or, even in brief, beginning with 
■oedanapaccyd tanlid [Cf. Vis. XVII. 28, 30, 32, 37, 41] Thus 

Similes iu 
XVIII. 33, 


lie Las an insight into the origin of suffering (dukkha-samudaye 
iianam), which is the same as dham-mat.thitiiidnavi, or hctupac- 
cayapariggahe iianam, or hankhdvitaranavisuddhi. All these 
expressions mean the same thing though the}" are different in 
words. [Cf. Vis. XIX. 25-26.] 

When the yogavacara has thus understood the Origin of 
Suffering, he further reflects upon the Cessation of Suffering. By 
reflecting upon the Law of Dependent Origination in the nega- 
tive way, that is to say, that the cessation of suffering is possible 
by the cessation of birth, and so on, up to that the cessation of 
sankharas is possible by the cessation of ignorance (avijjd), 
he sees that Nirodha also is hetupaccaya-jjafibaddha, and that 
by the cessation of craving (tanhd), it can be attained. When 
he has thus realized the Truth of the Cessation of Suffering, 
he tries to find out the Path for the cessation of craving. He 
knows that seeing danger in the five upadanakkhandhas is the 
Way, the Path. 

He then reflects upon the upadanakkhandhas in one hundred 
and eighty ways. Upon riipa for instance he reflects in this way : 
Atthi rupam atltam, andgatain, paccuppamnam, ajjhattam, 
bahiddhd, mahantam, parittam, oldrikam, sukhximam, dure, 
santihe, sabbam rupam aniccan li passati. [This is the same 
quotation from Ps. i. 53-4 as is given in B. XX. 6.] In the 
same way he reflects upon the other four khandhas. Thus 
there would be 12 multiplied by 5 i.e. 60 kinds of reflections. 
Add to these, 60 in each of the other two reflections by way of 
dukkha and anattd. Thus we get one hundred and eighty in all. 
There is also another way. He reflects as anicca, dukkha, 
and anattd on the following groups : [Cf. the list in Vis. 
XX. 9] 6 ajjhattika-dyatandni, 6 bahira-dytandni, 6 viniidnkdyd, 
6 phassakayd, 6 vedandkdyd, 6 saiiiidkdyd, 6 cetandkdyd, 6 
tanhdkdyd, 6 vitakkd, 6 vicdrd. Thus wo get one hundred and 
eighty (3 x 6 x 10). 

He considers all sankharas as changing from year to year, 
month to month, day to day, nay, even from moment to moment. 
In fact they appear to be new every moment [B. XX. 104: 
niccanavd] , like the continuous flame of a lamp [the constituent 
particles of which are new every moment] . 

He also considers them as dukkha, anattd. By aniccdnupas sa- 
nd, his mind is inclined to animittd dhalu, by dukkhdnupa- 
ssand to appanihitd dhdtu, and by anattdnupassand to sunnatd 

dhdtu. He understands by his discriminating knowledge that 
every kind of existence such as tayo bhavd, paiica gatiyo, 
satta viniianatthitiyo, nava sattdvdsd, is fearful and unreal. 

Pciriccheda-ndnavi nit.thitam. 


The yogavacara, having discriminated the upadanakkhandhas 
with these three lakkhanas, wishes to cut them off. He takes 
the nimitta and penetrates to the udaya and vaya. 
Upa. gives three kinds of nimitta- gahana : 

(i) Kilesa-nimitta-gahana. This is the perverse view n.O. 
(vvpallasasanind) of an ordinary man, that things are permanent 
when they are not. He is attached to the kilesas. This is 
like the falling of a moth into a lamp. 

(ii) Samadhi-nimitta- gahana. On one of the thirty-eight 
nimittas (i.e. kammatthanas 1 ) he concentrates his mind and 
thus binds it with the object. This is like the goad applied 
to an elephant. 

(iii) Vipassand-nimitta-gahana. If a man, who entertains 
a belief that thing3 are permanent, sees with insight into each 
of the five khandhas with their characteristics, he would wish 
to give them up, like a man who has seized a poisonous serpent. 
[For this simile compare Vis. XXI. 49-50.] 

Upa. goes into details of the way of taking the nimittas 
and penetrating to the lakkhanas. Of the former he gives two 
ways : drammanalo and manasikdrato, and of the latter three : 
hetuto, paocayato, and sa-rasato, in each of the two cases of 
udaya and vaya. 

He penetrates to the udaya and vaya of sankharas. When 
he has seen udaya and vaya, he understands four things : 

[From the explanation given XVII. 30 




of these terms, they appear xx 102 
to correspond to ekattanaya, 
■ ndnattanaya, abydpdranayd 
and evam-dhammatdnaya of 
B.XVII. 309-313; also they 
appear in XX. 102.] 
.. These terms are explained at great length. He perfects 
his knowledge of the sankharas and knows that all the sankharas 

1. See Chap. VII. above, p. 38 ff. 

are limited, at the beginning- by udaya, and at the end by 
vaya. Thus udayabbaye nanam sankhdra-pariccheda-ndnam 


The yogavacara, having seen the ndayabbaya-lakkhana, and 
having thoroughly understood the sankharas, pays no attention 
to the udaya, but thinks only of vaya of the mind. Herein 
this connection, we find the passage, though in an abbreviated 
form, from Ps. i. 57-58, quoted by B. in XXI. 11. 

Upa. then proceeds to give the three ways in which he sees 
the vaya or bhangc. [With this, compare Vis. XX.76, where 
we have seven divisions, of which the first two are worded iu 
the same way as the first two here, but the explanations agree 
only in part.] The three ways are : 

(i) Kaldpato. [The second explanation of Upa. agrees with 
the second explanation of B. given in Vis. XX. 78.] 

(ii) Yamakato. This roughly agrees with Vis. XX. 79. 

(iii) Paricchedato. He sees the vaya of many minds. 

Thus the yogavacara sees with his insight all wordly things, 
even to the smallest speck, as changing, growing, aging and 
passing out of existence. Further, he sees them as described 
in the gathas given by Upa. 

[Here we have a number of gathas, quite a few of which are 
the same aa given by B. at the end of the XVIIIth chapter, in 
paragraphs 32, 33 and 3G. All the stanzas in para 33 are 
found in substantially the same form— though not in the same 
order— with only a few variations ; as for instance, instead of 
pliassapancamd, Upa. has rupagandhadi-pancadhamma. 
Similarly, the gatha in paragraph 32 is the same except that the 
last quarter shows a little variation in words but the meaniug 
appears to be the same. In these stanzas, we meet with the 
similes of a flash of lightning and a gandhabba-nagara. [See 
Vis. XX. 104. XXI. 34.] The first stanza of paragraph 36 is 
also the same except that instead of sakena balcna Upa. has 
sakena kayena. In the second stanza of the same paragraph, 
instead of parapaccayaio ca jdyare and para-arammanato, 
Upa. has respectively na attatu jayare and na attarammanato. 

B. has ascribed these stanzas in paragraphs 32, 33 to the 
Poranas, and though it is not so definitely stated about the 
stanzas in paragraph 36, still presumably they are from the 
same source.] 

The yogavacara sees the vaya in this way. When he has 
not yet completely mastered the samadhi, there appear to him 
the following ten things [which B. calls npakkilesa] : 
obliaso, nanam, plti, passddhi, sukliam, adhimokkho , paggaho, 
v2>aUhanam,iipekklid, and ffi $£. This is the same list as is given 
in Vis. XX. 105, except that the last as given by B. is nikanti' 
while this Chinese text gives what would mean nekkhamma or 
nissarana or putinissagga. 

An unintelligent man is distracted by these things but an 
intelligent man is not disturbed by them. He knows lokiya- 
dhamma-sankhdrdrammajia as well as lokuttarardhamma-Nibba- 
ndiammana. He removes distraction, if there be any, sees only 
vaya and skilfully and abundantly develops it. 

Bhangdmi-passand-ndnam nitthitam. 

XX. 105 

1. Is this misunderstood by the Chinese Translator as iiikkhanli 



[Bit. 12.1.4-12.20.2 (end); Tak. 456c.-461o. Cf. 15. 
XXI. 29 onwards, XXII and XXIII.] 

The yogavacara, reflecting upon the vaya or bhanga, 
becomes afraid of the khandhas and of all kinds of existence. 
XXI. 29 sy ]^ as tne three bhavas, five gatis, seven vifinanatthitis and 
nine sattavasas, becomes afraid, as of a frightful man carrying 
a sword in his hand, or as of a poisonous serpent, or as of a heap 
of fire. [The last two of these similes occur in Vis. XXI. 29, 
and, for the first, we have only the word 'ghora' which may 
stand for this simile of a frightful man.] He is afraid of all 
nimittas and all kinds of uppada and thinks of animitta and 


[It should be noted that Upa. does not give any treatment 
of adinavanupassana-Aana or nibbiddnupassand-nana, perhaps 
because, as B. says, these two are the same as bhayatupatthdna- 
ndna. See Vis. XXI. 44, where B. quotes as his authority 
passages from the Poranas and Pali (Ps. ii. 63).] 

When the yogavacara sees all sankharas as fearful, he 
naturally wishes to be free from them, like a bird that is 
surrounded by fire, or like a person that is surrounded by 

Muficitukamyatd-ndnam nitthitam. 

[It should be noted that Upa. at once proceeds to anuloma- 
naim, without giving, the other intervening fianas, patisan/cha- 
nupassand-iidna and sankhdraupekkhd-ndna, mentioned by B. 
in the list of eight nanas preceding the mccdnulomikandna. See 
Vis. XXI. 1.] 

The yogavacara, by the cultivation of muncihikamyatd- 
nana, wishes to be free from all sankharas and is inclined to- 
wards nibbdna. He considers all khandhas as anicca, dukkha 

and anattu and considers their cessation as nicca, sukha and 

What is the meaning of anuloma-iidna? Upa. answers: Dill. 
calturo satipa.tthdnd, etc. [All the thirty-seven bodhi-dhammas 
given in Vis. XXII. 33 are mentioned here.] 

Anitlomandnam nitthitam. 


Upa. explains the word gotrabM and his explanation XXII. 5 
generally agrees with that of B. XXII. 5. He also gives a 
quotation from Ps. i. GG, though in an abbreviated form, which 
corresponds to that given by B. in XXII. 5. 

G otrabhu-iidnam nitthitam. 

Immediately after this gotrbhil-ndna, he has nn insight into 
Suffering, cuts off the Origin of Suffering, experiences its 
Cessation, and cultivates the Path for the Cessation of Suffering, 
and the sotdpatti-magga-ndna as well as all the Bodliidliamma 
are produced. At one and the same moment, not before or Similes in 
after, he makes sacca-pariccheda. To illustrate this simul- X XII. 92, 
taneous nature of sacca-pariccheda, Upa. gives three similes — ' 9G 

that of a boat crossing the floods, of the lamp that is burning, and 
of the sun that is shining. [These similes are given by B. in 
exactly the same words in XXII. 96, 92 and 95 respectively. He 
ascribes the simile of the lamp definitely to the Poranas, 1 while 
in the case of others though he does not say so, they are clearly 
from the same source.] 

Upa. gives a very fine simile to illustrate the difference 
between gotrabhu-iidna and magga-fiana.. 3 The former is 
compared to a man who has put only one foot outside the thres- 
hold of the gate of a city which is burning, while the latter is 
compared to another man who has put both of his feet outside 
the gate. Just as the former man cannot be said to have 
properly escaped the burning city so the yogdvaoara has not 
properly escaped the burning city of kilesas, if he has only the 
gotrabhu-iidiia. But when he has the magga-nan&, he has 
properly escaped the kilesas, like the second man in the above 

1 For these similics also see Pet. Vlth Chap. p. 15C (Bur. ed. 187), 
Abdhm. 132-33. 

2 B.'s simile is altogether different; see XXII. 12-13. 


[Chap, in, 2 

simile. It is tins mag ga-nana which makes the sacca-pari- 

The yogdvacara then destroys the three samyojanas : sakkdya- 
ditthi, vicikicchd, and silabbata-paramdsa and attains the 
sotdpatti-phala. 1 When he has destroyed the sakkdyadijthi 
he has destroyed all the sixty-two ditthis. For, sakkdyaditthi 
is the chief of all the heresies. Upa. then goes on describing 
how he gradually proceeds on his path towards Arhatship. His 
description generally corresponds to that of B. XXII. 15-29. 
Although Upa. is very brief, we often find the same expres- 
sions as those of B. For instance, the passage about the five 
paccavekkhanas of the sotdpanna is exactly the same as in B. 

XXII. 19. 

Upa. next goes on to tell us about the three kinds of sota- 
pannas : mitdidriyo sattakkhattuparamo, majjhimindriyo 
kolamkolq, and tikkhindriyo ekabiji 1 [cf. Vis. XXIII. 55]. 
He has also the same five kinds of auagamls as given by B. in 

XXIII. 56, but he adds that these five kinds of anagamis are 
seen in each of the first four classes .of Suddh-dvdsa gods, 
namely, Avihas, Atappas, Sudassas, and Sudassls, while in the 
last class, namely that of Akanittha gods, there are only four, 
because there is no Uddhamsota, as the highest stage has been 
already reached. From the state of an Andgdmi he goes to 
Arhatship. He has destroyed all the kilesas completely, cut 
off all saukharas aud made an end of all suffering. 

To show the unknown nature of the destiny of an Arhat, 
Upa. gives a very appropriate simile. Just as when iron is 
beaten (red-hot) and dipped into water and cooled, we do not 
know where the sparks of fire go, so we do not know anything 
about the destiny of an Arhat when he has reached the Unshak- 
able Happy State. 3 

Upa. next refers tn the views of some teachers who believe 
in the nd-iidbhisamaya referred to by B. in XXII. 103. B. 
simply refers to the Kathdvatthu for the refutation of their 

1 Cf. Pet. 145, (Bur. ed. 185): Tattha sotapanno hatham hoti? 

2 Cf. Pet. Ilnd Chapter, p. 33-34 (Bur. ed. p. 135). 
vdtavegena khitto attham paleti na upeti 


evam muni namakaya vimutto attham paleti na 

upeti sankham. 

8 Cf. Sn. 1074: Acci yatha 

wup. xii. 2] SACCAPAIUCCHEDA 121 

arguments, but Upa. proceeds to show the flaws in their 
argument. He points out seven flaws, at least two of which 
can be identified with some of the refutations of this theory 
given in the Kathavatthu, i. 213, para. 5 ff., 216, para. 10. There 
is one more passage containing the objection raised by an 
opponent, 'dukkhasaccam cattdri ariya-saccdnUiV [Kv i 218 
para. 14] that can be traced in Upa. Another passage given in 
answer to the above objection, ' Rupakkhandhe aniccato ditthe 
pancakkliandhd aniccato ditthd honti ti V can also be traced' 
And in the same way, says Upa.. the ayatanas and dhatus." 
Ine Jlathavatthu gives them in detail. 


Upa. continues: Ettha pakimuika-dhammd veditabbd He 
gives the following : vipassand, vitakka, pfti, vedand, bhumi 
rndnyani, vimokkho, kilesd, dvi-sanadhi-sarnOpajjanan. 
Upa. takes them one after another and goes into the detailed 
treatment of them showing what part they play in the progress 
ot tne yogavacara towards his ideal of Arhatship. 


Upa. gives two kinds of vipassand: jhdna-vipassana and 
sukkh^passand. If the yogdvacara, destroys the nivaranas 
by the power of samddhi, then he cultivates samatha-pubban- 
gamo^passand If, on the contrary, he destroys nivaranas 
by the power of his insight, he cultivates vipassand-pubban- 


This is explained as mkkha-vipassand. Upa. shows in what 
stages on the onward path of the yogdvacara,, it is found and 
in what stages it is not found. 



The treatment of these together with that of the 
last corresponds to Vis. XXI. 112-114, but the 
explanations do not agree in all respects. Upa. 
also gives here the different aspects of the Path 
such as sa-vitakkabhumi, avitakka-bhumi, 
sappitika-bhumi, nippitiha-bhumi. 

XXI. 112- 



XVI. 1-10 


much diif . 


Dassana-bhumi 1 in the Sotdpatti-magga ; or in aniccadifthi. 

Sankappa-bhumi in the remaining three Paths and in 
the four Fruits; or in the reflection and practice of 
andcca-ditthi. [The first interpretations correspond to 
XIV. 13.] 
Or else, 

Sekha-bhumi in the four maggas and three phalas. 

Asekha-bhumi in the Fruit of Arhatship. 


Three kinds of lokuttara-indriyas, 2 ananndtaiinassdmitin- 
driya, annindriya, and aiindtdvindriya, which respectively 
appear in the sotdpattimagganana, in the nana of the next 
three Paths as well as of the Fruits of the first, second 
and third Paths, and in the nana of the Fruit of Arhatship. 
[Cf. Vis. XVI. 1, 10 where these indriyas are given.] 


Animitta, appanihita, and sunnato. These are the 
three kinds of vimokkhas. Long passages are given to 
describe these. Only the introductory words of these 
passages are found in the quotation from Ps. ii. 58, given in 
Vis. XXI. 70. In the passage from that quotation about 
the sunnato-vimokkha, we have an expression vedabahulo 
for which Upa. has a word which is the equivalent of 
nibbidabahulo . 


Upa. gives a long list of 134 kilesas, together with the 
details as to which of them are enfeebled and destroyed by 
which of the Four Paths. [Cf. Vis. XXII. 49-76.] 
(i) Tini akusalamuldni : lobho, doso, ■moho. 
(ii) Tisso pariyesand : kdma-pariyesana, bhava°, 

brahmacariya' 3 

1. See Netti 50 : Vassana-bhumi niydmavakkantiyd padatthdnam ; 
bhavand-bhumi uttarikanam phalanam pattiyH padatfhB.narn. Also cf. 
Pefc. Vlth Chap. 145 (Bur. ed p. 185) : Catasso ariya-bhutniyo, catt&n 
samaftfia-phalani ; tattha yo yathabhutarri paj&n&i, esa dassana-bhumi. 

2. For these three indriyas also see Pet. Chaps. II and III, pp. 58, 
71-72 (Bur. ed. pp. 146, 152). 

3. The same three are mentioned in Vbh. 366 and Pet. VHIth Chap. 
284 (Bur. ed. 251). 


Cattdro dsavd : 
Cattdro gantha : 

Cattdro oghd -\ 

Cattdro yoga ) 

Cattdri updddndni : 

kdmo, bhavo, ditthi, avijjd. 
abhijjhd, bydpddo, sllabbata- 
paramdso, idamsaccdbhiniveso. 

kdmo, bhavo, ditthi, avijjd. 

kdmo, ditthi, silabbatatn, 

(viii) Catasso agatiyo: clmndo, doso, bhayam, moho. 

(ix) Paiica macchariydni : dvdsa-macchariyam, kula°, 

ldbha°, vanna (fc)",' dhamma' . 

(x) Paiica nlvarandni: kamaochando, bydpddo, thina- 
middham, uddhacca-kukkticcam, vicikicchd . [It 
is to be noted here that according to B. XXII. 
71, thinamiddha and uddhacca are abandoned 
at the time of Arhatship. 2 But according to Upa., 
it is only thina and uddhacca that are given up 
at the time of Arhatship and not middha. 
Because he says that middha is rupdnuvatti. For 
Upa.'s position regarding middha, see above 
pp. 48, 95.] 
(xi) Cha vivddamulani : kodho, makkho, issd, sdtheyyam, 
pdpicchatd, sanditthipardmdsatd. 

(xii) Satta anusayd ( {£ ) : Kdmardgo, patigho, mano, ditthi, 

vicikicchd, bhavardgo, avijjd. 
(xiii) Attha loka-dhammd : Idbho, aldbho, ayaso, yaso, 
pasamsd, nindd, dukkham, mkham. 

(xiv) Navamdnd: Seyyassa 'seyyo 'hamasmi'ti mano, and 
the remaining eight as given in Vibhanga 389-90. 

(xv) Dasa kilesa-vatthuni : lobho, doso, moho, mano, ditthi, 
vicikicchd, thinam, uddhaccam, ahirikam, anot- 

1. The Chinese text interprets the word vanna as rupa ( <S form) 
and this is in keeping with the alternative interpretation given in the 
Commentaries. See DCm. iii. p. 1027: Vanno ti c'ettha sarlravanno pi 
gwnavanno pi veditabbo; DhCm. 375 comments on vanna-macchariya as 
follows: sariravanna-guiiavanna-Tnaccherena pana pariyattidhamma- 
maccariyena ca attano va vanno ti, parcsain vanno 'Icim vanno cso'ti tarn 
tam dosarn vadanto pariyattiH ca kassa ct kin ci adento dubbanno c'eva 
e\atnugo ca hoti. 

2. See also DCm. iii. p. 1027: Thlnarn citta-gelaftilam; middhatn 
khandhattaya-gelaHnam,. Ubhayam pi Arahattamagga-vajjhain. Cf. also 
MCm. ii. 216 : middham cetasika-gelailHarn. 

, .i^Kiiuuauua ICHAP. xn. 2 

tdppdm. There is also another alternative to these. 
'That man has done a great harm to me, or is 
doing, or will do.' The same three cases with a man 
whom one likes or dislikes. These nine with the 
addition of the tenth, the thought of doing ha: 3, 
make up the number ten. 
(xvi) Dasa akusala-kammdpatha : panatip&to, adinnddanam, 
[kdmesu] micchdcdro, musdvddo, pisund vdcd 
[the Chinese Text has a word which means 
'double tongued'], pharusd vdcd [the Chinese text 
would strictly mean pdpikd vdcd] , samphappaldpo, 
abhijjhd, byapddo, micchd ditthi. 
(xvii) Dasa samyojandni (-f- ■{£)' : These are the same as seven 
anusayas mentioned above (in the xiith 
category) with the addition of silabbatapard- 
masa, issd and macchariya. [This list differs 
from the usual list of the ten samyojanas, 
which gives rupa-rdga, arupa-rdga and 
uddhacca in the place of bhava-rdga, issd, and 
■macchariya of this list. [See Abhs. p. 32, Chap. 
VII. para 2.J 

(xviii) Dasamicchantd: the same as micchattd of B. XXII. 
50, 66. 

(xix) Duddasa vipalldsd : the same as mentioned in B. 
XXII. 53, 68. 

(xx) Dvddasa akusala-cittuppdda: the same as mentioned 
in B. XXII. 63, 76. 

Thus we have a list of 134 kilesas. Upa., unlike B., describes 
in several cases at which of the Paths these kilesas are 
enfeebled before they are finally destroyed. Even as regards 
the stage of their complete destruction, Upa. often differs 
from B. 

1. For the first time where the enumeration of the categories of the 
kilesas i B given (12.13.3), the character used is $± although here where 
the detailed constituents are given the character used is$r. It appears, 
therefore, that both the characters are indiscriminately used, although 
we have seen above that the latter character is used for anusaya. In 
Przyluski 'Le Conceile de Rajagrha (first part), p. 46, we find ^ used for 
anusaya, while jf± fe is used for samyojana. For the very slight distinc- 
tion between these two words, see MCm. iii. 145 : so yeva kihso bandha- 
napthcna saiayojanarn, appahlnatfhena anusayo. 


(A) Aputhuj janasevitd phala-samapatti. 

(B) Saiinavedayita-nirodha-samapatti. 

With reference to the first (A), Upa. raises the following 
questions and answers them: 

(i) What is phala-samapatti? It is a sdmaniiaphala with 
the mind {citta) placed on Nibbdna: [cf. B. XXIII. 6: ariya- 
phalassa nirodhe appan-d.] This is called phala-samapatti. 

(ii) Why is it called phalasamdpatti? It is neither kusala, 
akusala, nor kiriyd. 1 It is achieved as the lokuttara-magga- 
phala-vipdka and so it is thus called. 

(iii) Who attain it? The Arhats and the Anagamis, because Thesame 
the samddhi reaches perfection in their case ( #* !& % -f£ v i ew as 
ffi). Also there are some 8 who say on the authority of the Abhi- that of IB. 
dJiamma that all the Ariyas attain it. Upa. here quotes, as »™£ 
their authority, a passage which agrees with the passage from red t0 by 
Ps. i. 68: Sotapattimagga-patilabhatthdya uppddam abhi- TJpa. 
bhuyyatl ti gotrabhu, Sotdpattiphala-samapattattMya uppddam 
abhibhuyyatl ti gotrabhu. Evam sabbattha. [B. gives the same 
passage, in a fuller form, in Vis. XXIII. TJ. 

[B. refers exactly to this view that is held by Upa. when he 
6ays : keci pana 'sotdpanna-sahaddgamino pi na samapajjanti, 
uparimd dve yeva samdpajiantl' ti vadanti. Idaii ca tesam 
karanam: Etc hi samadhismim paripurakarino ti. B. refutes 
this view by saying that even a puthujjana can attain that 
state [of perfection] in a lokiya-samddhi attained by him, 
and by further adducing the passage from Ps. i. 68 [given 
above in brief] in support of his position. It is evident from 
this that Upa. was aware of this view and the argument on 
which it was based.] 

Upa. next refers to another view according to which all -N 
Ariyas may have it but only those in whom samddhi has 
reached perfection can attain it. To support this view, Upa. 

1. Cf. a similar statement about the dhutas or dhutangas on pp. 23, 24 
above. The Taisho edition gives a different punctuation and so it gives a 
slightly different interpretation. 

2. TJpa. here refers to the view held by the school of Buddhaghosa. 


[Chap, xjl 2 

quotes one Ayasmd Narada 1 (Na-lo-tho U{5 H Pfi) w ho says 
to mendicants "Just as in a mountain-forest there may be a well 
but no rope with, the help of which water may be taken out. If 
at that time there comes a man overcome by the heat of the sun 
and fatigued by thirst, and if he sees the well and knows that 
there is water in it, but still cannot actually reach it, 2 then 
merely by his knowledge about the existence of water in the 
well and by seeing it, he cannot satisfy his thirst ; so in the 
same way, if I know nirodlia as wibbdna and even if I have a 
XXIII. 8 perfect yathdbhiita-iidiiadassana, I do not thereby become a 
khindsava Arahd." 

(iv) Why is it attained? The answer is the sameasB.'s: 
dritthadhmmasukhaviharattham [B. XXIII. 8]. Upa. gives 
a quotation in which the Blessed One is described as saying to 
Ananda that he finds his body in a phasuvihara when he attains 

(v) In what way does he attain it? The answer substantially 
agrees with that given in B. XXIII. 10. 

XXIII. 9 ( VI ) I n what way does he reflect (katham ca manasi karoti ?) 

12, 13 Asankhatam amatadhdtum santato manasikaroti. 

(vii) In what way does he attain it, stay in it, and emerge 
from it? The answer is the same in substance — although the 
words used are different — of what is said in quotations from 
M. i. 296-97. given by. B. in XXIII. 9, 12, 13. 

(viii) Is this samadhi lokiya or lokuttara? This samapatti 
is lokuttara and not lokiya. 

TJpa. then goes into a brief discussion of a technical point. 
When the Anagami reflects upon the phalasamdpatti, why is it 
that the gotrabhu does not produce, without any intervening 
obstruction, the Arahattamagga? The answer is : because it does 
not produce vipassana-dassdna, as it is not the thing aimed at ; 
and because it is not strong enough. 

1. Who is this Narada? Mhvy. 3470 mentions one Narada-bhikkhu 
under 'Maharfi-n&m&ni' . A.iii.57-62 mentions one Narada-bhikkhu, 
who is shown to be consoling Xing Munda on the death of his wife 
Bhadda. Petavatthu refers to one in pp. 1,2,44. Also see Petavatthu- 
Commentary 2,15,208,210,211, etc; Vimanavatthu-Commentary 165-109, 
203; DhpCm. 1.42,84,344. 

2. Cf . Pet. 190 (Bur. ed. 206) : yatha gambhlre udapane udakam 
cakkhund passati, na ca kayena abhisambhuna'ti, evamassa ariycl 
nijjhanakkhantiya ditthi bhavati, na ca sacchikatd. 

<JU.\F. XII. zj 

[This is the answer of Upa. to the objection raised by 
B. in XXIII. 11, to the view of some : Ye 1 pana vadanti: 
sotdpanno plialasamdpattim samdpajjissdini ti vipassanam 
patthapetva sakaddgami hoti, sakaddgami ca anagami ti, te 
vattabbd: evani sati anagami arahd bhavissati, arahd pacceka- 
buddho, paccekabuddho ca buddho. Upa. seems to have 
anticipated this objection raised, perhaps along will others, 
by the school B.] 

Then he speaks of dnividha phala-visesa, which seems to be diff. 
quite different from B.'s dvihi dkdrehi rasdnubhavanam hoti 
[B. XXIII. 3]. 

Upa. next proceeds to the treatment of (B) saiiild-'vedayita- xxill. 
nirodharsarndpatti, which very closely resembles that given 17-51 
by B. in XXIII. 17-51. Ba - 

(i) What is sannd-vedayitat-nirodha-saindpatti ? Citta- 
cetasikdnam appavatti. [See B. XXIII 18]. 

(ii) Who attain it? The Anagamis and the Arhats. In 
them, the samadhi reaches perfection. Upa. says that the 
Sotapannas, Sakadagamis and those beings who are in the 
arupdvacara-loka cannot attain this samapatti. Upa. also 
gives reasons. 

(iii) Being endowed with what powers can one attain it? 
The powers of samatha and vipassamd. The treatment of them 
is the same as in Vis. XXIII. 19-23. 

(iv) By the cessation of what sankharas is it attained ? Tho 
answer is the same as is contained in that part of the quotation 
from Vs. i. 97-100, which is given by B. in XXIII. 24. 

(v) What are the preliminaries (pubba-kiccdni)? They are 
the same four as given by B. in XXIII. 34, except that for 
Satthwpakkosanam we have tfi HI which means ojvikkhepa. 

(vi) Why is it attained P Ditthadliammasukha/viltdrattham. 
For, it is added: ay am ariydnam sabbapacchima dneiija- 
samdd.hi. And further to produce abhinna.s one enters upon 
■vipphdra-samddhi, as dyasmd Sanjlva did to protect his body. 
As also Sariputta 2 and 6 Jt ■? IS $? (Moggali-putta-tissa(?)) 3 

1. Dhammapala (ii. p. 896) here again tells us that B. makes this 
statement with reference to Abhayagirivadins. 

2. See Ps.ii.212. The stories given in M.i.333 and Ud. 39-40 are 
briefly narrated in B.XII.32 and 31 respectively. 

3. Tissa, the son of a white bird (Moggala). 


[Chap. in. 2 

did. [Cf. B. XXIII. 37, where only the first two of these 
names are given but in a different context. The last name is 
not there.] 

(vii) ■ How is it attained? The answer is the same as is given 
in Vis. XXIII. 31-34, 43-47, except that according to B. there 
are not more than two nevasafina-nasanna-cittas, while accord- 
ing to Upa. there may be two or three. 

(viii) How does he emerge from it? He does uot think 
'I shall emerge from the samadhi' but when the time-limit 
that is previously determined is reached, he emerges from it, 1 

(ix) With what kind of citta does he emerge from it ? An 
Anagami with anagaml-citta and an Arhat with arahatta-citta 
[Cf. B. XXIII. 49.] 

(x) How many contacts has he? Three contacts, contact 
with sunnatd, animitta, and appanihita. 

(xi) What Sankharas first arise? First kayasankharas and 
then vacl-saukharas. 

(xii) What is the difference between a dead person and one 
who has attained this samadhi? The answer is the same as given 
by B. in Vis. XXIII. 51, in the quotation from M. i. 296. 

(xiii) Is this samadhi sanhhata or asankhata? It cannot be 
said of this samadhi that it is sanhhata or asankhata. There is 
no sankhatadhamma in this samadhi, and one cannot know when 
asankhatadhamma comes and goes. [Cf. Vis. XXIII. 52.] 
Nirodhajjhana-samdpatti nitthitd . 

At the end of this chapter is given the ud-dana of the twelve 
chapters in the book. 

Then there is a concluding gatha, which purports to say : 
'Who can know this Dhamma which is profound, un-nam- 
able, unthinkable? Only that yogavacara who resolves upon 
cultivating the excellent Path, who has no doubt in the instruc- 
tions and who has no ignorance.' 


1. This and the following four questions are discussed in M i 302 
(Sutta No. 44). 


[1. My article in the Annals of the Bbandarkar Oriental Research 
Institute Vol. XV parts III— IV pp. 208-11 is reproduced hero with son>" 
alterations and necessary corrections.] 

The development of a child in the womb 
from week to week, 
as given in (he Vimuttimagga (Chap. VIII, 4; p. 76,) 
1st week Kalala 

2nd „ Abbuda 

3rd „ Pesl 

4th ,, Ghana 

5th ,, Five joints 

6th ,, Four joints (possibly in addition 

although it is not so expressly 
said as in the following case) 
7th , , Four more joints 

8th ,, 28 additional joints 

9th week and 10th week Spine and bones 
11th week 300 bones 

12th „ 800 joints 

13th ,, 900 sinews 

14th „ 100 flesh-balls 

15th ,. blood 

16tli ,, pleura, (kilomaka) 

17th „ Skin 

18th ,, Colour of the skin 

19th ,, Kammaja vata all over the body 

24th „ Navadvarani 

25th „ 17000 pores (?) 

26th „ Solid body 

27th „ Strength 

28th „ 99000 pores of the hair on the body 

29th „ All the limbs of the body 

Also it is said that in the seventh week the child remains by 
the back of the mother with the head down. In the 42nd week, 
the child is moved from its position by the windy element born 
of karma and comes to the yonidvdra with its head below. And 
then there is birth. 



List of worms in a human body as given in the Vimuttimagga 
(Chinese version Chap. VIII. 4; p. 76.) 

The Vimuttimagga refers to 80,000 families of worms in all. 
It also gives the names of some -worms as follows : — 

Location Name 

Hair of the head Fa-thien (hair-iron) 

Skull Er-tsung (ear-kind) 

Brain (matthalungu) Tie-Quan-hsien (niaddeuer) 

subdivided into- four categories, 
(i) Yu-cu-ling-po (ii) Sa-po-lo 

(iii) Tho-lo-a M Tho-a-sa-lo 

E Thie-yen (licker of the eye) 

Ecv Thie-er ( „ „ ,. ear) 

Nose Thie-pi ( „ ., >. nose) 

subdivided into three kinds : 
(i) Lau-kheu-mo-afha) (ii) A-leu-kheu 

(iii) Mo-na-la-inu-kho (Mrnalniukha?) 
Tongue Fu-kie (or Fu-cie) 

Root of the tongue Mu-tan-to 

Teeth Kyu-pa 

Root of the teeth Yu-po-kyu-po 

Throat A-po-lo-a ( °ha ) 

Neck subdivided into two kinds : 

( i ) Lo-a-lo ( ii ) phi-lo-a-lo 

Hair of the body ( loma ) Thie-inao (licker of hair of the body) 
Nails Thic-tsa-o (licker of nails) 

Skin subdivided into two kinds 

( i ) Tu-na ( ii ) Tu-nan-to 

Pleura (Kilomakam) subdivided into two kinds : 

( i ) Phi-lan-po ( ii ) Mo-o-phi-lan-po (Maha°) 

Flesh Two kinds : 

( ii ) Lo-sa-po 
Two kinds: 

( ii ) Po-to-lo 
Four kinds: 

( ii ) Si-to-sa 

( iv ) Lo-na-po-lo-nfi 


( i ) A-lo-po 

(i) Po-lo 
Sinews (nharu) 

( i ) Lay-to-lo 

( iii ) Po-lo-po-to-lo 

Root of the pulse 
( i ) Sa-po-lo 

Two kinds : 



Bones Four kinds : 

( i ) A-thi-phi-phu ( iii ) A-nan-phi-phu 

( iii ) Tay-liu-tho-phi-tho ( iv ) Ay-thi-ye-kho-lo 

Marrow of the bones (atthiminja) Two kinds : 


Two kinds : 

Two kinds: 

Two kinds : 

I Ti-to 


( ii ) Sa-lo 

Two kinds : 

( ii ) Ko-lo-sa--lo 

Two kinds : 

Two kinds : 

Mo-ha-ko-lo, Mah5°) 

ii ) Yu-po-sa-po-lo 

(i) Ml-se 
Spleen (pihaka) 

( i ) Nl-lo 

( i ) Sa-pi~to 
Root of the heart 

( i ) Man-kho 
Liquid fact (vasa) 

(i) Ko-lo 

( i ) Ml-ko-lo 
Root of the bladder 

( i ) Ko-lo ( ii ) Ko-lo-sa-lo 

Cells of the membrane Two kinds : 

( i ) Sa-po-lo ( ii ) Mo-ha-sa-po-lo (Maha°) 

Roots of the cells of the membrane Two kinds : 

( i ) Lay-to ( ii ) Mo-ho-lay-to (Maha°) 

Mesentry ( Antaguna ) Two kinds : 

( ii ) Mo-ho-lay-to (Maha) 

Two kinds : 

( ii ) Mo-ho-sa-po 
Root of the large intestine Two kinds : 

( i ) A-nan-po-afha) ( ii ) po-ko-po-a, 

Stomach or rather its contents (udariya) Four kinds : 

( i ) Yu-sau-ko ( ii ) Yu-se-po 

( iii ) Tsa-se-po ( iv ) Sie-sa-po 

Abdomen Four kinds: 

( i ) Po-a-na ( ii ) Mo-ho-po-a-na 

( iii ) Tho-na-phan ( iv ) Phang-na-mu-kho 

Bile Pi-to-li-han 

Saliva (khela) Sie-an 

Sweat Ra-sui-to-li-ha (a) 

Fat (Medo) Mi-tho-li-a (ha) 

Strength Two kinds : 

( i ) So-po-a-mo ( ii ) Se-mo-chi-to 

( i ) Cau-lay-to 
Roots of the intestines 
(i) Po 




Root of the strength Three kinds : 

(i) Chieu-a-mu-kho ( ii ) A-lo-a-mu-kho 

( iii ) Pho-na-mu-kho 

Five kinds of worms in 
The food in front of the body 
.. ,, „ the back side of the bodv 
» " » - le ft ., „ 
" " » >• r 'ght ,, ,, 

and worms named 
Can-tho-sa-lo Chang-a-so-lo Pu-to-lo 

and so on. 
l,ower two openings Three kinds : 

( i ) Kieu-lau-kieu-lo-wei-yu ( i ) Oha-lo-yu 
( iii ) Han-thiu-po-tho 



I propose to indicate here some of the parallel passages 
found in the Vimuttimagga and Petakopadesa. 1 

(1) In the very Introductory chapter 2 of the Vimuttimagga, 
Upatissa gives his reasons as to why he should tell the people the 
Path of Deliverance. There are, he says, some people who pro- 
fit by listening to others and he gives a quotation (see M., j, 294) 
in which the Blessed One declares that there are two ways in 
which one can have the right view (sammddiUhi)— either by 
learning it from others or by self-reflection. This corresponds 
to 'Dre hetii dve paccayd mvakassa sammdditthiyd vppadaya, 
parato ca ghoso saccdmisandhi, ajjhattan ca yoviso manasikdro' 
found at the very beginning of the Petakopadesa. 

(2) In the third chapter of (111.74) of the Visuddhimagga, 
Buddhaghosa refers to the view of the fourteen cariyfls which 
he is not prepared to accept. Upatissa does refer to these 
fourteen 5 and names them one after another. Among these 
there are two types which are called by the name of samabhd- 
gacanya. Now exactly this very type is found in Petakopadesa, 
Vllth Chapter, pp. 157, 1G2 (pp. 19Q, 192 of the printed edition). 
(3) In the Twelfth book of the Vimuttimagga, in the twelfth 
chapter (Saccapariceheda), part two, 1 we have only three lokut- 
tara-indriyas given as playing an important part of the progress 
of the Yogavacara towards, the ideal of Arhatship. 2 These same 
three indriyas, anndtaHiiassdinnindriyam, ailiiindriyam , and 
nnatavindriyani are also found in the second and the third 
chapters of the Petakopadesa, pp. 56, 71-72 (pp. 146, 152 of the 
printed edition). 

(4) So also in the same chapter we come across three 5 kinds 
of searches, tisso esand or jtoriyesand. The same three we meet 
with in the eighth chapter of the Petakopadesa, p. 284 (p, 251 
of the printed edition). Also see Vibhanga, p. 3G6. 

(5) In the second part of the 51th chapter 6 we have three- 
fold classification of things; khandha-sangaha, ayatana-sangolia, 
dhdtusangaha. Exactly the same classification we meet with 
in the sixth chapter of the Petakopadesa, p. 124 (p. 176 of the 
printed edition). 

(6) In Book four, Chapter eight, part one, 7 of the Vimutti- 

1. My article on this subject in Indian Culture vol. Ill, no. 4, 
pp. 744-46, is reproduced here with a lev,- alterations. 

2 - P- 2 - 3. p. 34. 4. p. 122. 

fl. n 1V>. R „ 110 T in 


magga, Upatissa mentions three kinds of middha, dhdraja, 
utuja and cittaja, of wliicli only the last he considers as 
nivarana, while the other two are possible even in an Arhat. 
Upatissa speaks of it in the twelfth chapter 1 also. There he says 
that among things given up by one at the time of the Arhatship, 
there are thlna and vddhacca and not thina-middha and 
uddhacca as is asserted by Buddhaghosa in the XXII Chapter 
71 para of the Visuddhimagga. This view of Upatissa is sup- 
ported in the Petakopadesa, Vllth Chapter, p. 180 (p. 201 of 
the printed edition), where it is said 'Atihi pana Arahato 
kdyakilesamiddhail ca okkamati, na ca tarn, nivaranam; tassa 
thinamiddham nivaranam ti na ekamsena' . This view is also 
supported by the author of the HilindapaSha (see p. 253 of 
Trenckner's edition) who mentions middha among ten things 
over which an Arhat has no control. 

(7) Upatissa quotes from what he calls San Tsan three 
passages ' of which I have been so far able to identify two 
passages, only in the Petakopadesa, Vllth Chapter, pp. 157. 
158 (p. 191 of the printed edition). One of these passages (p. d6) 
corresponds to 'Tattha alobhassa paripuriya vivitto hoti kdinehi, 
tattha adosassa paripuriya, amohassa paripuriya ca vivitto hoti 
pdpakehi akusalehi dhammehi' . 

(8) The other passage 2 contains a simile which illustrates the 
distinction between vitakka and vicdra. The simile in the 
Vimuttimagga corresponds to the following passage from the 
Petakopadesa 'Tattha pathamdbhinipdto ritakko, patiladdliassa 
vicaranam vicdro. Yathd puriso duralo purisam passati 
dgacchantam, na ca tdva jdndti itthl ti vd puriso ti vd, yadd 
tu patilabhati itthi ti vd puriso ti va evam-vanno ti vd — evam 
vicaro vitakke appeti.' 

(9) There are other similes also from the Vimuttimagga 
which can be traced to the Petakopadesa, Vllth Chapter, p. 158 
(p. 191 of the printed edition). Here is one. 3 'Yathd baliko 
humhiko 1 sajjhdyam karoti evam vitakko, yathd tarn yeva 

anupassati evam vicdro Niruttipatisambhiddyavi ca pati- 

bhdnapatisanibhiddyam ca vitakko, dhammapatisambhiddyam ca 
attliapa^isambhidayam ca vicdro. 

(10) While Jc;cri-bing the simultaneous nature of the pene- 
tration into Truths (saccapariccheda) Upatissa gives three 
similes, 5 that of a boat crossing the floods, that of a lamp that is 
1. p. 123. 2. p. 47. 3. p. 47 

4, The printed edition reads Hunhiko'. 6. p. 119. 



burning- and that of the sun that is shining. Petakopadesa gives 
almost identical similes (p. 150; 187 of the printed edition). 
Buddhaghosa refers one of these similes to Poranas and although 
he does not mention that name with regard to others, it is very 
clear that the other similes also he borrows from the same 

(11) There is one other important simile which I have been 
able to trace to the Petakopadesa, p. 190 (p. 20G of the printed 
edition). Upatissa gives a quotation! from one Narjrta which 
purports to say 'Just as in a mountain-forest there may be a 
well but no rope with which water could be taken out. If at 
that time there comes a man Overcome by the heat of the sun 
and fatigued by thirst, who sees the well and know6 that there 
is water in it, but still cannot actually reach it, then merely 
by his knowledge about the existence of water in the well and 
merely by seeing it, he cannot satisfy his thirst; so in the same 
way, if I know nirodha as nibbdna and even if I have a perfect 
yathdbhutandtiiadassana, I do not therebs' become a khiiidsava 
araha.' The passage in the Petakopadesa sa5's 'Yathd gambhire 
udapdne udakam cakkhund passati na ca kdyena abhisambhundti, 
evamassa ariyd nijjlianakhantiyd ditthi bhavati na ca 
sacchikatd' . 

(12) Besides the passages given above there are some minor 
passages where we find some of the jhanas explained as having 
particular angas. For instance, the third trance 2 is explained 
as having five angas in the Vimuttimagga. These same angas 
are mentioned in the Petakopadesa, p. 155 (p. 190 of the printed 
edition). 'Tathd pancanga-samanndgatam tatiyam jhdnain — 
satiyd, sampajannena, sukhena, citteka.ggatdya, upekkhdya' . 

Do the instances given above justify us in concluding that 
the Author of the Vimuttimagga had the advantage of consult- 
ing the Petakopadesa 3 ? 

1. p. 126. 

3. For other references, see pp. 

2. p. 52. 

S, 120, 122. 


For facilitating reference to the P.T.S. edition of the 
Visuddhimagga, the following table is given. It shows the 
number of pages of the Visuddhiuiagga published by the Pali 
Text Society, corresponding to the chapters and paragraphs of 
the same test to be published in the Harvard Oriental Series. 
The Roman figure shows the number of the chapter. 











































































































































































































































28 . 












































l OS 



















































































































































































































































































































































































X ' 









































































P.T.S. H.O.S. 







Pages Para- 




























































































































































































































































































































86 90 




















































































































































86-91 587 

91-95 588 























61 1 















































672 1-5 

673 5-8 

674 8-13 

675 13-17 

676 18-23 

677 23-28 

678 28-34 

679 34-39 

680 3943 

681 43-45 

682 45-48 

683 48-56 

684 56-66 

685 66-78 

686 78-79 

687 79-83 














43- K " 


a-kata, 43. 
a-katannuto, 77. 
: Akanittha, 120. 
a-karanato, 73. 
a-kalika, 67 ; "niarana, 72. 

"ditthi, 110. 

"dbanmia, 115 

"kammapatba, 124. 

"cittuppada (twelve), 124. 

"dhamma, 79. 

"mulani (three), 122. 

Vila, 6, 10. 
ankura"(sim.), 104, 105. 
a-gati (four), 123. 
a-garava-padattnana, 99. 
acci, 120n. 
ajjbatta, 87. 

"bahiddha, 87. 

"babiddba-araniniana, 87. 
anfiana-upekkha, 65. 
annatavindriya, 122. 
afinindriya, 122. 
anne, 5. 

Atthakatha, 58, 60, 95. 
Atthaka-nipata, 81. 
a^tbana, 32. 
attbi -sanna, 62. 
attbika, 38, 61. 
Atappa, 120. 
atitamsa, 65. 

"nana, 89. 
atlta-kamniakilesa, 106. 
attba, 110. 
avitatba", 110 
dhamma", 110. 
vacana°to, 83. 

sacca°, 110. 

suSiiata", 110. 

(two kinds) : sauiaiina, visesa, 83. 
Atharva-veda, 76n. 
a-dukkhamasukba, 53. 
a-dosa, 28, 46, 80. 
addbana-pariccbednto, 74. 
adbicitta-sikkba, 2, 70. 
adbitthana (°a) 

(four), 80 n. 

iddbi, 86. 
"paramita, 64, 80. 
adbipanna-sikkba, 2, 70. 
adbipateyya, 8. 
adbimokkha, 99. 

(upakkilesa) 117. 
adbisilasikkba, 2, 70. 
ananuataunassamltindriya, 122. 
anatta (°a) 84, 114, 119. 

° anupassana, 114. 

" sanna, 75. 
ananvaya-fiana, 6. 
anagatamsa, 65. 

"Sana, 91. 
anagata-pbala-vipaka, 106. 
Anagauri, 3, 125-128. 
five kinds of, 120. 
anacariyaka, 62. 
anasava, 1, 110. 
anicca, 84, 114, 118. 

"anupassana, 114. 

"anupassi, 71. 

"ditthi, 121. 

"sanna, 74, 75. 
"appatigha, 97. 
"sappatigba, 97. 
anindriya, 42. 


a-nimitta (a), 118,128. 

"ceto-sarnadhi, 126. 

"to, 74. 

"dhatu, 114. 

"vimokklia, 122. 
aniyata, lln. 
anutapa, 6n. 
anuttara, 1, 63. 

"vimutta, 3. 
anunaya, 49, 82. 

pafcigha", 82. 
anupadinna, 97. 

"riipa, 97. 
anupubba-samapatti (uiue), 66. 
auuppada, 118. 
anubandhana, 70. 
Anuruddha, 48. 
anulotaa, 28n. 

"nana, 118-119, 119. 
auusaya (satta), 111, 123, 124n. 
anussati, 38, 62-78. 

upasarna", 41. 

Cha" niddesa, 63. 

dasa", 38, 62-78. 

Buddha , 41, 62-66. 
anoitappa, 99, 123. 
anta, 49, kalyana", 2. 
antarayakarii, 27. 
antarayika, (dhamina) 
(samadhissa), 27. 

silassa(34), 6. 
autaravasaka, 17. 
anvaye nanam, 93. 
apacaya, 92, 93. 
apariyapanna, 29. 

"panna, 93. 
apare, 95. 
apaya-kosalla, 92. 
a-puthujjana, 125. 
appana, 45, 46, 49, 53, 60, 66. 

nirodhe", 125. 

"sainadhi, 28. 
appanihita (°a), 128. 
"dhatu, 114. 

"vimokklia, 122. 
apparuafina, 38, 39, 78-82. 

(four), 38. 
appamana-cittani, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42.. 
Apparuana-subha, 53. 
Appauianabha, 52. 
apparajakkha, 2. 
apphutam fianena, 65. 
abbuda, 76, 
abbocchiuna, 97. 
Abbhuta-dhamma, 94. 
abbliokasika, 16, 21, 23, 24. 
abyakata, 91, 93n. 

"kiriya, 92. 

"dkutanga, 24. 

"panua, 92, 93. 

°slla, 6. 
a-byapara-naya, 115. 
abbabba samadhissa 

uppadanaya, 57. 
Abhaya-giri, 24. 

°vadino, 127n. 

"vasika. 24, 24n. 

"vasino, 49n, 95. 
abhifina, 80, 86-91. 

(five), 27, 86, 

(six), 65. 

lokiya", 91. 

lokuttara°, 91. 
"sacehikiriya, 27. 
Abhidhamma, 1, 4, 23, 26, 32, 33, 

62, 74, 125. 
abhibhayatana, 60. 

(eight), 65-66. 
abliiruana, 111. 

"dvara, 66. 

"dhatu, 64, 84, 126. 


a-mauussa, 43. 
a-rniddliata, 28. 
a-moka, 46, 79. 
Ambat^ha, 63. 

"manasikara, 105n, 112n, 

"rnanasikara-mulaka dhanima, 
ayuta, 63. 
arati, 81, 82. 

"upapatti, 10. 

"niagga, 120. 

"slla, 8, 9. 
Araha (araham) 3, 24, 48, 63, 126, 
127, 128. 
kkinasava", 126. 
aritta, 61. 

°vasa, 66. 

"sacca, 108, 109. 

"sacoa-upaya, 112. 

ariya-iddlii, 80. 
arupavacara, 89. 

(sphere), 89. 

(samadhi), 54-56. 
aruiia-vanna, 43. 
a-lobha, 46, 79. 
a-vikkhepa 28, 127. 
avijja, 104-106, 111. 
a-vinibbhogato, 83. 
a-vippa^isara, 5, 9. 
Avisahya-Sresthi-jataka, 64. 
Aviha, 120 

a-vihimsa-safina, 97, 98. 
avltikkama-slla, 4. 
a-samvara, 4-5 
a-sankhata, 105, 126, 128. 

"dhamrna, 128. 
asankhiya, 63n. 
asankheyya, 63. 
Asaiiui (deva), 30, 53. 

"samadhi, 30, 55, 
a-samprajanya, On. 
asubha, 3S, 60-02. 
"to 76. 

(dasa) 38, 41. 

"sarina, 75. 
a-sekha-bhumi, 122. 
assasa-passasa-upanibaddha, 74. 
Astanga-hrdaya, 76n. 
a-himsa, 81. 
a-hirika, 99, 123. 
akara, 97. 

"riipa, 97. 

"vikara-rupa, 97. 
akasa, 54, 54n. 

"Snaficayatana, 54-55. 
,, -upaga, 55. 

"ayatana, 38. 

"kasina, 59, 87. 

'not without riipa' 58, 59. 
paricchinna "kasina, 38, 40, 59. 

"samapatti, 54. 

'without rupa," 69. 
akiiicanSayatana, 38, 55-56, 85. 

"upaga (gods), 56. 
acaya, 92, 93. 
acariya, 23, 34, 36, 70n. 

"mata, 37. 
acara, 5, 10, 11, 15. 
adana, 4. 

adikammika, 32, 88. 
adi-kaiyana, 12, 49. 

"anuoassana-Bana, 118. 

"sanfia, 75. 
Ananda, 126. 
anamana, 71. 

"sati, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 69-72. 
anisamsa, 5, 17-22, 27, 69, 72, 75, 
77, 78, 79, 80, 84, 92. 



Mhamina, 11. 
"vihara, 57. 
"samadhi, 127. 
apatti, lln. 
iipo, 83. 

apo-kasina, 38, 57. 
Abhassara, 52. 
amantana, 18. 
aya-kosalla, 92. 
ayatana, 95, 100, 113, 114. 
(twelve), 100-103. 
ajjhattika", 114. 
bahira", 114. 
"dubbalato, 74. 
"sankhara, 72. 
arannika, 16, 20, 23, 24. 
araniniana, 31, 36, 40, 79, 80, 81, 
82, 88,' 89, 91, 117. 
(nine) : paritta, niahaggata, etc. 

Nibbana", 117. 
patibhaga", 40. 
bherava", 39. 
sabhavadhamma", 40. 
arammanato, 35, 40, 99, 115. 
aruppa, 39, 54n, 54-56. 

"kasina (two), 39. 
aloka, 90, 101. 
"kasina, 38, 58, 59, 88, 90. 
"pharanata, 30. 
"saiiua, 90. 
avajjana-citta, 102. 
avasa, 32. 
asana, 44. 
asava, 48. 
(four), 123. 

"khaya-balani (ten), 66. 
"samudaya, 105. 
ahara, 96. 

ahare patikkula-saSSa, 38, 40n, 

41. 82, 84-85. 
ahuneyya, 67. 
Alara Kalaina, 55. 
itthi-sariram purisassa, 61. 
itthindriya-dasaka, 96. 
idamatthita, 25. 
idamsaccabhinivesa, 123. 
iddhi, 86-87. 
adhitthana , 86, 87. 
ariya°, 86. 

"katha, 86. 
punnavato", 80. 

manomaya", 86, 87. 

yikubbana", 86, 87. 
iddhi-pada, 65, 66, 88, 89, 90, 
khara-samannagata' 1 , 87 
iddhima, 87. 
iddhividha, 86. 

"nana, 87. 
Indra, 73n. 
indriya, 84, 121. 

(five), 65, 66, 111. 

(three), 122. 

"dhamnia, 5. 

"samvara, 12, 14. 

sukha", dukkha°, 

domanassa", somanassa°, 
upekkha", 97. 
iriyapatha, 36. 
issa, 6, 124. 
uggaha-niinitia, 45. 
uccliagga, 58. 
uccheda-ditthi, 110. 
uju-patipanna, 67. 
utu, 96. 

uttarasanga, 17. 
udaka-rabada (sim.), 52. 
udapana, 126n. 
udaya, 115, 116. 

iMUI'.A UL' i'Al.1 WUKUb 

udayabbaya, 115. 
"nana, 115-110. 
"lakkhana, 116. 
Uddaka Raraaputta, 55. 
Uddhamsota, 120. 
uddhaoca-kukkucca, 27, 49, 123. 
uddbumataka, 38, 00-61. 

"sanna-anisamsa, GO. 
upakkilesa, 7, 71, 117. 
(nine), 70, 
(ten), 117. 
Upagupta, 62n. 
upacara, 28n, 45, 53, 57, 66. 
"jhaua, 45, 85. 
"samadhi, 28, 67, 78 : 
sa-sambharika°, 49. 
upajjbaya, 23. 
upatthana, 117. 

(upakkilesa), 117. 
Upatissa, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 23, 24, 35 
(very important), 74, 83, 84, 
etc. (too numerous references). 

sabba pafinissagga, 66. 

aa "ta, 27. 
upamato, 110. 
upasamharanato, 73. 
upasama, 77. 
"(adhitthana), 80 
°anussati 38, 41, 77-78. 
uppatti-dvarato, 97, 98, 
upadana, 104, 
(four), 123. 

"kbandha, 100, 108, 114, 115. 
(180 ways of reflection upon), 
upada-riipa, 95, 96. 

(twenty-si*), 95. 
upadinna-rupa, 97. 

upaya, 41, 45. 

"kosalla, 92. 

(panca), 95-112. 
upayasa-dukkha, 108. 
upekkhaka, 52. 
upekkha, 52, 53, 53n, 80, 81. 

(of eight or ten kinds), 52. 
(threefold,) 52. 

"anubruhana, 49. 

"indriya, S8. 

"(upakkilesa), 117. 

"paramita, 64, 80. 

"bhilmi, 81. 
uppalini (sim.), 52. 
ummllana, 44. 
uka, 96. 

"sira, 96. 
eka-bhojana, 19. 
ekaggata, 48, 49, 49u, 51n, 52n, 

ekacce, 35, 70. 
ekatta-naya, 115. 
ekattato, 97, 110. 

nanatta", 84. 
ekabljl, 120. 

tikkhindriya", 120. 
eka-lakkhana-dhamma, 115. 
ekasanika, 19, 23. 
eke, 49n. 

ekodi-bhava, 31, 51. 
etarahi, 74. 

evam-dhammata-naya, 115. 
ehi-passa, 67. 
ehi-passika, 67. 
elamuga, 123n. 
ogha (four), 123. 
ottappa, 33. 
odata-kasina, 58, 59. 
odatena vatthena parupita (sim.), 

odata-vasana-sila, 10. 


"pharana, 80. 
au°pharana, 80, 
opapatika, 89. 

"rfipa, 107. 
obhiisa, 117. 
orima-tlra (siin.), 110. 
•attfiena, 110. 
"kamaraga-patigha, 77. 
"riipa, 114. 
kankha-vitarana-visuddhi, 113-115. 
kakaca (sim.), 70, 78. 
kantaka, 50. 

kanha-sukka, 97, 98; °to, 97. 
kata, 43. 

Kathavatthu, 120, 121. 
kappa, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56. G3n. 
kamato, 110. 
kamina, 32, 96, 105. 
"kilesa, 106. 
°dvara, 43, 51, 59, 69. 
"nimitta, 106. 
"vipakajn, 97n, 
"vipakaphala-fiana, 97. 
"sakata, 79. 
°sakata-nana, 91, 93. 
"saniutthana, 96. 
°sahajata°hetu, 107. 
kammatthana, 31, 34, 41, 43, 01, 
82, 115. 

(thirty-eight), 33-39, 115. 
"paricclieda, 38-42. 
karuna, 38, 80, 81. 
kalala, 76. 

kalapato, 76, 83, 96, 116. 
adi°, 2. 

tividha" 47, 49, 51.53, 55, 56. 
pariyosana", 2. 
majjhe°, 2. 

"mitta, 32. 

"rnitta-pariyesana, 32-33. 
kasina, 38, 33-53, 45, 57-59, 58, 87. 
(artificial), 58. 
dasa°, 38. 

"mandala, 43, 44, 45, 58. 
vanna", 41, 59. 
kama, 44. 
kilesa", 46. 
"chanda, 27, 49. 
vatthu", 46. 
kaya, 100. 
"gata sati, 38, 40, 41, 75-77, 111. 
"viniiana, 101. 
"sankhara, 70, 128. 
sa-vinnanaka°, 111. 
kaya-bahu-sadharanalo, 74. 

phassa", vedana", saiiua", ceta- 
na°, tanha°, 114. 
kalika-inarana, 73. 
kilesa, 90, 105, 121, 122. 
°kama, 46. 
*to, 36. 
ruula°, 35. 
•vatthuni (ten), 123. 
(attached to), 115. 
(end of), 120, 124. 
(one hundred and thirty-four), 
kiki (sim.), 15n. 
kiccato, 36, 83. 
kimi-kula, 76, Appendix A 1. 
"jhana, 30n. 
"samadhi, 29, 30. 
kukkura-sila, 9. 
kumara, dahara (sim.), 45. 
kula, 32. 
kusa, 75. 
kusala-dhamma, 66, 79. 

kuhana, 12. 
kevala, 106. 
kolamkola, 120, 

majjliimiiulriya", 120. 

aya", apaya", upaya°, 92. 
khanato, 74. 
khanikaniarana, 72. 
kbanti, 78, 93. 

•paramita, 64, 80. 
khandha, (five), 95-100, 113, 118, 

rupa, vedana, sanna, saukhara, 

vinnaua, 95. 

upadana°, 100, 114, 115. 

dhamrna", 100. 
khalu-pacchabhattika, 16, 20, 

khippa-patipada, 35. 
khela, 96. 
gana, 32. 
ganana, 70. 
gananato, 11U. 
ganda, sanna", 56. 
Ganthi, Visuddhimagga", 65n. 
gati, 106. 

(five), 111, 115, 118. 
gati-nimitta, 106. 
gantha, 32. 
gandhabba (sim.), 71, 72. 

"nagara (sim.), 116. 
gamanato, 36, 84. 

"katba, 32. 

"eabhava, 105. 

•to, 41. 

nimitta", 57, 115. 
gam, 32. 

gavl, pabbateyya" (sim.) 51. 
guna, pancavisati , 49. 

tevisati", 51, 52. 
dvavisati", 52. 
pancavisati , 48. 
bavlsati", 53, 55, 56. 

indriyesu , 28, 
go-slla, 9. 
go-cara, 10, 11, 36. 
Gotama, 1 

gotrabhu, 28, 28u, 57, 119, 125, 

"nana, 119. 
ghana, 76. 

"anurava (sim), 46. 

"abhighata (sim.), 40. 
ghora, 118, 
ghosa, 2. 
cakkato, 106. 
cakkbu, 96, 101, 

"ayatana, 96, 100. 

"dasaka. 96. 

"pasada, 96. 

•vinnana, 99, 101, 102. 
catu-sankhepato, 106. 
candala, 15, 23, 99. 
catudhatu-vavatthana. 33, 40, 40n, 

41. 42, 82-84, 95. 
caudana, 75. 
camarl, 15. 
Caraka, 76u. 
carana, 63. 
vijja , 63. 
cariya, 34, 35, 38. 

(fourteen), 34. 

"pariccheda, 34-37. 
Cariya-pitaka, 64. 

"(adhitthana) 80. 

•auussati, 38, 67. 

. cantta (sila), 7. 
citfa, 84, 96, 98, 102. 
"ekaggata, 109. 
"patisainvedi, 71. 
para "vijanana, 86. 
"sankhara, 71. 
"samutthana, 96. 
(in the vlthi), 102. 
cintarnaya-panna, 92. 

"papuranato, 36. 

"samadana, 36. 
cunnato, 83. 
cetana-kaya, 114. 
cetana-sila, 4. 

"gliara, 63. 

"rukkha, 21. 

"pariya-nana, 89. 
"pharanata, 30. 

Chaddanta-jataka, 64. 
chanda, 123. 

kaina", 27, 49. 


sankhara-samannagata, 87. 
chava-dahaka, 72. 

jainbu-pakka-sadisa, 89. 
jara, 104, 108. 
"marana, 105. 
javana-citta, 102. 
jagariyanuyoga, 28. 
Jataka-mala, 64n. 
jati, 104, 105. 
"rupa, 95. 

jiguccbanato, 76. 
jivha, 100. 
jiva, 84, 113. 
"indriya 72, 87, 97. 

jhana, 26, 48, SO. 
"acariya, 33. 
upacara", 45. 
catuttha°,53-54, 81. 
' tatiya", 52-53. 
"to, 39. 

dutiya", 51-52. 
paucangika", 48. 
pathama", 46-50. 
nana, 89. 
(upakkilesa), 117. 
cakkhumlii", 94. 
nanesu°, 94. 
(four kinds), 91, 94. 

(various kinds) 93-94, 115 1 19 
nati, 32. 

thapana, 70. 
thanato, 75. 
thiti-bhagiya, 10, 50. 
tandula (sim.), 104. 
tanha, 7, 8, 34, 84, 104. 

°kaya (cha), 111, 114. 

"khaya, 66. 

"mulaka dhamina, 111. 
tagara, 75. 

tatra-majjhatta-upekkha, 52 
Tathagata, 63, 73, 88, 89. 
"balani (dasa), 65. 

tadarammana-citta, 102. 

tapana, 6u. 

tikkbindriya, 50. 

Tittbiya, 90. 

tila, pasanua "tela, 89. 

tiracchana-yoni, 81. 
tula-picu (sim.), 70. 
teclvarika, 16, 17. 
tejadhikanam, 96. 
tejo, 33. 

tejo-kasina, 38, 57. 
thalato, 61, 

tbiua, 123, 123n. 
"middba, 19. 21, 27, 47, 90, 
tbullacoaya, lln. 
Tbera-gatha, 62. 
Tbera Si(n) galapita, 62 
dadhi (colour of), 88. 
daudha-patipada, 35. 
dava, 12, 
dava, 65. 

dabara-kumara (sim.), 45 
dana, 12. 
"paraniita, 64, 83. 
°6amvibhaga, 79. 
daru-sara-suci, 70. 
diitbi, 7, 8, 34, 99. 
akiriya", 110. 
uccheda", 110. 
iniccha", 110. 
"visuddbi, 113. 
sakkaya", 110. 
sassata", 110. 
"sukhavihara, 126, 127. 
"sukbaviharita, 27. 
"cakkhu, 86, 90-91. 
(two kinds), 90. 
"sota 86, 88. 
disa, dasa "cariya, 111. 
Digbavu, 64. 
dlpa-sikba (sim.), 97. 
dukkata, lln. 

dukkha, 84, 106, 108, 114, 113. 
"anupassana, 114. 
"khandha, 106. 
dukkba", 138, 111. 
vatthu", 108. 
viparinaiaa", 108. 
sankbara", 108. 
sabhava", 108. 
"sila, 9. 

duggati, 97. 
123. tfubbhasita, lln. 
dussila, 7. 
dure, "rupa, 114. 
devata-anussati, 38, 67-68. 
deva-manussa, 63. 

(devanam), (sim.), 55. 

sa°nissita, 88. 
domanassa, 53. 

"indriya, 88. 
dosa, 71, 78, 89. 
"carita, 24, 34-37, 75. 
"cariya, 34. 
'nidana, 35. 

samapajjana, 121. 
dvedhayitattam, 65. 
dbamma, 41, 44, 50, 66, 
100, 128. 
"anussati, 66-67. 
"ayatana, 100. 
kalyana", 65. 
"tbitinana, 114. 
"niruttabhilapa, 94. 
"rasa, 46 v 
"vicaya, 66, 92. 
"visesa, G5. 

dbammata-sila, 10. 
dbammato, 99. 
Dhammapala, 5, 35, 49u, 

70, 95. 100n. 127n. 
Dhammasangani, 54, 54n 92 

97, 99, 110. 

akusala", 79.- 
kusala", 79. 
dhamme Sanam, 93. 
Dharma-sangraba, 16a, 64n 

dhatu, 83, 95, t03, 113, 114. 
(eighteen), 103. 
(four), 83. 
"nidana, 35. 

catu "vavatthana, 83-84. 
"pasada, 100. 
"sangaha, 112. 
Dhatu-katha, 112n. 
dhuta, 5, 10-26, 125n. 
dhutanga, 19, 23, 24, 24n 

akusala," 23. 
abyakata", 2, 23-24. 
kusala", 23, 24. 

vininunutta, 24. 
flhuta- vada, 24, 25. 
dhunia-sikha, 70. 
dhenupaka-vaccha, 52. 
nadlsota (sim.), 97. 
naniataka, 16n. 
ekatta", nanatta," 
evam-dhammata°, 115. 

na vattabharauimana, 87. 
navanlta, (colour of), 88. 
nahapaka (siin.), 49. 
"antevasi (sim.), 49. 
"ekattato. 84. 
"to, 97, 110. 
"naya, 115. 
"sanna, 54, 90. 
nSuabhisainaya, 120-121. 
namatika (or namantika), 

nama, 113. 

"kaya, 120n. 
nama-rupa, 104, 111. 

"vavatthana, 113. 

Narada, 126, 126n. 
nikanti, 117. 

bhava". 107. 
nikkhanti. 117n. 
Nigantha, 27, 27n. 

"(practices), 27. 
"miga, 64. 
"pakka-sadisa, 89. 
•uicca, 119. 
nicca-nava, 114. 
uijigimsanata, 12. 
nijjhanakkhanti, 126u. 
uijjlva, 100. 
Nidana, 1-3, 103. 
nidhanato, 77, 85. 
ninnato, 61. 
nippesikata, 12. 

kammaphala-vipaka", 90. 
bhavana", 90. 
viriya-bhavana-bala", 90. 
sucarita-kainnia", 90. 
Nibbana, 7, 04, 66, 77, 100, 109, 
118, 125, 126. 
anupadisesa", 1. 
"aramniana, 117. 
"gamini-patipada, 66, 
nibbida, 50, 53. 72, 74, 93. 
"anupassana-Sana, 118. 
"bahula, 122. 
nibbinna, kamesu, 81. 

"bhagiya, 10, 50. 
niniantana, 18. 

nimitta, 31. 39, 44-45. 46, 57, 58, 
59, 60, 61, 62, 70, 74, 75, 115.' 
uggaha". 45. 
"gaha, 60. 

patibhaga", 43, 45, 70. 
"vaddhana, 39. 
pathavi° ) 64. 



nimitta-gahana, 57, 115. 

kilesa". samadhi", vipassanii", 
niramisa-samadhi, 31. 
Nirodha, 66, 125. 120. 
"jhana-samapatti, 128. 
"sacca. 111. 

125, 127-12S. 
"samapatti, 57. 

(hetupaccaya-pa(.ibaddha), 114. 
Nissaggiya-pScittiya, lln. 
nissandato, 75, 85. 
nissaya, 49, 74. 
nissita, 7, 8. 

loka°, atta", dhamma , 8. 
nila-kasina, 58. 
mvarana, 1, 48, 49, 95. 

(five), 48, 49, 111, 123. 
Netti. 39n, 80n, 122n. 
nekkhamma, 4, 44, 64, 117n. 
"paramita, 64, 80. 
"sanna, 97, 98. 
Netrlpada-Sastra, 62n. 
Netripada-siitra, 62. 
neinittikatii, 12. 
NeraEjara, 64. 
38, 40, 56. 60. 85. 
"upaga, 56. 
nesajjika, 10, 22, 23. 48n. 
"Sana, 80. 
"vanna. 87. 
"slla, 10. 
pamsukula, 17. 
pamsukulika, 16, 23. 
paggaha, 117. 

(upakkilesa), 117. 
pakinnaka-katha, 37, 56, 59, 62, 

78, 81-82, 87, 91. 
pakinnaka-dhamma, 121-28. 

pakkha-vikkhepa, 46. 
paccattam veditabbo viiiihihi, 07. 
paccaya, 12, 13, 103-107. 
catu", 12. 

"dhamma, 5. 

"paccavekkhanfi, 13. 
hetu°, 103-107. 
paccavekkhana, 13, 49. 
(five), 120. 

"uiina, 30. 

paccaya", 13. 

"sauna, 30. 
paccupatthana, 5, 25. 20, 79, 80. 
paccuppannamsa, 05. 

"kamma-kilesa, 106. 

"phalawipaka, 106. 
Paccekabuddha, 7, 73, 81, 88 89 

pacceka-sacca, 110. 

"anga-samapatti, 29. 

"nanika-samma-samadhi, 30. 

"dhanu-satika, 20. 
panna, 1, 2, 3, 49, 92. 

(adhitthana), 80n. 

(anekavidha), 92-94. 

ariya", 95. 

"khandha. 2, 14, 100. 
"carila. 75. 
"pariccheda, 92-94. 
"paramita, 03, 80. 
"visesa, 40. 

patikkulata, 84, 85. 
l>atigha, 82. 

"anunaya, 82. 

"saiina, 54. 

Paticca-samuppada. 103, 105. 
pafinissagga, 117. 

"anupassana, 4. 

"anupass;, 69, 71. 


'dhamma, 111. 
sabbiipadhi", 06. 
patipakkha, 49, 82. 
khippa", 35. 
"nana, 94. 
"dandha, 35. 
dukkha". 29. 
"visuddhi, 49. 
"sainpayutta, 94. 
sukha", 29. 
ujV, 67. 
su°, 67. 
patipati, 90. 
patippassaddha-sila, 8. 
patibiniba, 45. ' 

Banna", 45. 
patibhaga-nimitta, 43. 45, 70. 
pafivedha, 93. 
patisankha, 12. 

patisainkhanupassana-nana, 118. 
patisambhida, 70, 80. 
catu*. 92, 94. 
attna", 47, 94. 
dhamma", 47, 94. 
nirutti". 47, 94. 
patibhana", 47, 94. 
Patisambhidamagga, 4, 7, 30, 39, 
49, 62, 70, 86, etc. 

(almost throughout) 
pathavi, 83. 
a" sanna, 56n. 
"kasina, 43-57, 54. 50, 85. 
"dhamma, 44. 
"nimitta, 54. 
"safina, 56, 56n. 
panidhana, 63. 
panihita, 8. 
panlta, 50, 52, 53. 
patitthfi, sllassa, 15. 
patta (sim.), 104. 

patta-pindika, 10, 19. 

padatthana, 5, 26, 43. 
paduminl (sim.), 52. 
padhana-sankhara, 87. 

pabbajja, 27. 
pabheda-rupa, 97. 
para-citta-vijanana, 80, 88-89, 

paramattha, 119. 


"sacca, 110. 
paramatthato, 80. 
paramattha, 8. 
parikamma, 28, 28n. 

"samadhi-fiana, 89. 
paricce nanam, 93. 
paricchinna-akasa-kasina, 38, 40, 


"nana, 115. 

"to, 100, 106, 110. 116. 

"rupa, 97. 
paritta, 50, 52, 53. 

"rupa, 114. 
Paritta-subha, 53. 
Parittabha, 52. 
paripaka, (dhatunam), 108. 
paripurakarino (samadhismim), 

paribbhamana, 46. 
paribhoga, 13. 

"to, 85. 

"macchariya, 123 n. 
pariyanta, 19. 
pariyesanato, 84. 
pariyesana (three), 122. 
palasa, 6. 
passaddhi, 7. 

(upakkilesa), 117. 

citta," 1. 



pavicaya, 92. 
paviveka-vihara, 28. 
pasada, 96. 

cakkhu" (described), 96. 
pasadana, cittassa, 98n. 
pahana, 27. 

"anga, 77, 

(nivarananam), 28. 
palibodha, 32. 
Pacittiya, llu. 
Pataliputta, So. 
ITdidesaniya, llu. 
patihariya, (three), 66. 
panaka-sadda, 88. 
Patimokkha, 10, 11, 06. 
"dhamma, 5. 
"samvara, 10, 14. 
pamanga-sutta, 70. 
paramitii (or par ami), 63n, 65u. 

(teu), 64, 80. 
Parajika(a), lln., 14. 
pahunej-ya, 67. 
pindapatika, IS. 
pitta, 35, 41. 
piya-puggala, 80, 81. 
piyo, 32. 

piyo garu bhavaniyo etc., 32. 
pita, 43n., 

"kasina, 58. 
piti, 2, 47, 48, 49, 51n., 52. 

(sis-fold), 47. 
(upakkilesa), 117. 

"patisatovedi, 71. 

"sukha-virahitata, 27. 

"pharanata, 30. 
punna-khetta, 67. 
puthujjana, 53, 89, 125. 
puppha (sim.), 104. 

"acariya, 101. 

"kiccani, 127. 

"nivasiinussati, 80, 89-90. 
(three kinds), 89. 
pubbacin-a, 35. 

"nidana, 35. 
purisa-damma-sarathl, 03. 
puluvaka, 38, 01. 
Petaka, 49. 

Petakopadesa, 2. 32u, 34u, 
46n — 49n, 51u, 53u, 
SOu, 112u, 120n. 122u, 
Appendix A 3. 
pesi, 76. 

pothujjanika, 91. 
Porana,. 117, US, 119. 

anodhiso" 80. 
odhiso" 80. 
pharanata, 30. 
aloka", 30. 

piti", sukha", etc." 30. 
phala, 54. 
"to 85. 
"visesa, 127. 
"samaiigissa iianam, 93. 
"samapatti, 27, 125-127. 
phala-hetu-sandhi, 105. 
phassa, 99, 104. 
"ayatanani, 711. 
"k&ya, 114. 
"paScama, 116. 
phasu-vihara, 12, 19, 120. 
bala, 49, 80, 84. 
(five), 65, 06. 
asavakkhaya" (ten), 06. 
Tathagata/ 65. 
blja (sim.), 104, 105. 
bijato, 75,°hetu, 107. 
Buddha, 7, 33, 44, 62, 63, 64, 66, 
"anussati, 62-66. 
"g'uua, 03. 


"gunanussati, 62. 
"flaiia-panna, Go. 
"dhaninia (attharasa), 65. 
Buddhaghosa, 4, 0, 02, 70, 103 
118, 125, etc. 
(almost throughout). 
Buddhauussati, 38, 41. 62-66, 67 

"carita, 41. 

'eariyS, 34. 
bojjhanga, 84, (seven), 111. 
Bodhi (tree), 64, SO. 

"dhainma (thirty-seven), 109, 

pakkhiya-<lhamina, G6u. 
Bodhisatta, 64, -80. 
byapada, 27,-49, 81, S2. 
byapada-mano, 65. 
Brahma(a), 50. 

"gods, 50. 

"parisajjata, 27. 

"parisajja, 50, 50n. 

Maha, 50. 
Brahma-kaj'ika, 97. 
Brahnia-loka, 41. 
Brahma-vihara, 38. 
bhauga, 116, 118. 

"anupassana-nana, 116-117. 
Bhagava, 56, 62, G3. G7. 
Bhadaula, 62. 
Bhadda, wife of King Muuda, 

bhaya-sila, 9. 
Bhayabherava-sutta, 63. 
bhayatupatthana-iiana, IIS. 
bhava, 104, 105. 

(three), 115, 118. 

"tanha, 111. 

"nikanti, 107. 

"visesa, 27. 

"sanipatti, 27. 


"upaccheda, 102u. 

"calana. 102u. 

°citta, 102. 

"pata-citta, 102. 

"inana, 102. 
bhava-hetu-sandhi, 105. 
bhavana, 49, 81. 

"maya pafina, 92. 
bhavaniya, 32. " 

°gama, 36. 

"inagga, 36. 
bhara (sim.), 110. 
bhikkhu, 11. 

"dhamma, 14. 
bhumi, 54, 120, 121. 122. 

avitakka", sa-vitakka°, 121. 
"to, 41. 

dassana", sankappa". 122. 

nippitika", sappltika", 121. 

bhayana", 122u. 

sekha", a-sekha°. 122. 
bheravararamana, 39. 
Bhesa-kalavana, 62. 
"ahara, 36. 
"to, 36. 

"niattannuta, 16. 19, 23. 
uiakkha, 6. 
Magadha, 64. 


"angani, 66. 

"afcthangika", 111. 

"Sana, 119, 120. 

"patipada, 1. 

°sacca, 111. 

"saniangissa nanam, 93. 
niacchariya, (five), 123. 
niajjhe, 49. 

"kalyana, 2. 


majjhatta, 79, '81. 
majjliima, 50. 52, 53. 
majjhimadesa-upapatti, 79. 
mandala, 43, 44, 45. 58. 

bhojane °ta, 1G. 19, 23, 28. 
manasikara, 101. 

ayoniso" 105a., 112u. 
"to, 115. 

"miilaka dhamma, 112. 
samma", 79. 
manQyatana, 100. 
mano 101. 
"dhatu, 97-99. 
"vifinana, 101. 
°vinnana-dhatu, 97-99. 
mano-maya iddhi, 86. 
marana, 72, 104. 

(of two kinds), 72-73. 
(of three kinds), 72. 
"sati, 38, 40, 72-75. 
(distinguished from anieca- 
saniia), 74-75. 
mahauta-patubbavato, S3, 
"Brahma. 50. 
"bhuta, 83, 95, 96. 
Mahakapi, 64. 

mahakaruna-samadhi, 29, 80. 
Maha-govinda, 64. 
mahapuiina (panca ), 87. 
Mahavyutpatti, foot-notes on 0, 

16, 29, 64, 65, 93, 104, 
Maha-satta, SO. 
Maha-sudassana, 73. 
Magandiya-sutta, 36. 
mana, 7, 34; (nine), 123. 
Mandha.ta(°tr), 73n. 
Mara, 64. 
Miga (sim.), 21. 
niiccha, 11-12, 14. 
"anta, 111, 124. 

"ajiva, 11-12, 14. 

"ditthi, 110. 
micchatta, 124 
middha, 48. 
fibaraja", utuja", cittaja", 48. 
(kayika dhamma), 4S. 
"rupa, 95, 123. 
(rupadbamma), 48. 
(rupanuvatti), 123. 
mufieitukamya ta -nana, 118. 
munala-mukha, 76. 
Munda. king, 126n. 
audita, 38, 80, 81. 
mudu-indriya, 42, 50. 
muni, 95, 120n. 
Mugapakkha, 64. 
Murdhatah (Mfirdhajatah), 73u. 
miila, (raettaya), 79. 
inula-kilesa, 35. ' 
Mendaka, S6. 
metta, 3, 78-80, 81. 

"paramita, 64, 80. 
moggala, 127n. 
Moggaliputtatissa, 127. 
Moggallana, 73. 
moha, 89. 

"earita, 24, 34-37. 

"cariya, 34. 

"sila. 9. 
Yatha-kammupaga, 90. 

"nana, 91. 

"Baiiadassana, 126. 

"nanadassana-visuddhi , 113. 
yamakato, 116. 
yamaka-patihariya, 29, 80. 

Yamataggi, 73. 
yathasanthatika, 16, 22. 
yuga, 44. 
Yuvanasva, 73n. 
yoga, (four), 123. 

yoggvacara, 16, 26, 43, 44, 45, 49, 
51. 52, 53, 54, 55, 5G, 58, 59, 
CI, G3, C4, 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 
77, 81. 84, 86, 88. 95, 113, 116, 
etc.; too numerous references, 
yonito, 97. 
patisankha,", 12. 
"patisevati, 12, 13. 
"manasikaro, 2. 
raja, 20. 
rava, 65. 

rasa, 5, 25. 2fi, 43, 57-59, 61, 62, 
69, 72, 75, 77, 80-82, 83, 84, 92. 
"anubhavana, 127. 
dhamma", 46. 
rasa (sim,), 104. 
RSga, 71, 79. 
"carita, 24, 34, 37, 75. 
"cariya, 34. 
raga-caritadito, 41. 
rukkha (sim.), 104. 
rukkha-miilika, 10, 21, 23, 24. 

sevitabbfi, na sevitnbba, 21. 
riipa, 101, 113. 
(thirty), 95, 90. 
(twenty-eight), 95. 
(reflection upon), 114. 
upada", 95. 
"khandha, 95-97. 
jati", 95. 

middha", 48, 95, 123. 
"loka, 41. 
rupa-kalapa-santati, 97. 

"(trance), 47-54, 87. 
roga-saniia", 56. 

lakkkana, 4, 25, 43, 57-59, 61, 62, 
69, 72, 75, 77, 78, 80-82, 84. 
•to, 83, 99, 109. 

dasa "sampannam, 48, 49, 51 
52, 53, 55, 56. 
dvara", 103. 
"riipa, 97. 
sabhava", 103. 
lakkhana-sangahato, 107. 
lapana, 12. 
liibhena labha, 12. 
Ungate, 60, 01. 
"dhamma (eight), 11], 123. 
"dhatu, 8S, 89. 
"vidu, 63. 
sankhara", 63. 
salta", 08. 
"panfia, 92. 
"samadhi, 28. 
°slla, 7. 
"paiiSa, 92. 
"samadhi, 28, 
"aria, 7. 
lobha. 88, 122. 

navanavuti "sahassa, 96. 
(also see 85). 
Loma-hamsa-jataka, 64. 
lohita, 38. 

"kasina, 58. 
lohitaka, 3S, Gl. 
•atthato, 83, 99, 100, 109. 
"khamo, 32. 

vaccha (dhenupaka"), 52. 
nimitta , 39. 

°to, 39, 
vanna-kasina, 41, 59. 

(reflection upon), 75. 
vanna-macehariya, 123, 123n. 

I.Ni;Ji.V Ul' I'AIjI «UH1« 

vattharammanato, 99. 
vadhaka-paccupattlianato, 73. 
vatta, 32. 

°kama, 46. 

"dasaka, 96. 
vaya, 115. 116, 117, 118. 
valahaka-patala, 70. 
Valahassa, G4. 
Vasubandhu, Gn. 
vata, 35, 74. 
vata-dhara, (sim.), 70. 
vayama, 10. 
vayo, 83. 

■vayo-kasina, 38, 57, 58. 
varitta (slla), 7. 
valagga, 58. 
vikappa, 82. 

itthi-purisadi", S2. 

vikara-riipa, 97. 
■vikubbana-iddhi, 86. 

"vimutti, 1, 2. 

"vimutti-magga, 2. 
vikkhayitaka, 38, Gl. 
vikkhitlaka, 38, Gl. 
vikkhepa-pahana, 45. 
vicaya, 92. 

dhamma", 92. 
Ticara, 46-47, 48, 49. 51, 77. 

(sis), 114. 
vicikiccha, 4S, 49, 57, 123. 

(of four kinds), 4S. 
vicchiddaka, 38, 61. 
vijja, 28. 

"carana-sampanua, 63. 

"vimutti, 69. 71. 
vinnana, 99-100, 104. 
(seven kinds), 99. 

"anancayataua, 55. 

"aiiancayalana-upaga, 55. 
"ayataua, 38. 
"kasina, 40, 59. 
"kaya, 114. 

"thiti (seven), 111, 115, 118. 
vifinana-dhatu, 100. 

(sevens, 100. 
vitakka. 42, 46-47, 48, 49, 51, 57, 
71, 72, 77, 121. 
(six), 114. 
"carita, 41. 
"cariya, 34. 
vittharato, 82. 
vinamana, 71. 
Vinaya, 1, 32, 33, 98. 
(rules), 11. 
"samvara, 14. 
vinllaka, 38, 61. 
viparita-sanna, 56. 
vipallasa, 111. 
(four), 111. 
(twelve), 124. 
"saniia, 56, 115. 
vipatti, 79, 80. 

vipassana, 27, 49, 50, 71, SO, 111. 
12.1, 127. 

"dassaua, 126. 
"pubbaugania-samatha, 121. 

samatha-pubbangama", 121. 

sukkha". 121. 

vipubbaka, 38, 61. 
vippatisara, 9. 
vipphara-samadhi, 127. 
Vibhanga, 11, 31, 54, 79, 81. 
vimutti, 1, 9, 49. 
(five kinds), 1. 
anuttara". 1. 

"khandha, 100. 

"iianakkhandha, 100. 

"sambhara, 7. 


mill ■ liiiUAOtrA 

< Vimuttiniagga, 2, 24n, 31, 35 
(very important), 7Gn. 

vimokkha, 26, 54, 69, 80, 121 

(eight), 66. 

vimocayam cittam, 71. 
viraga, 50, 66. 
viriya, 49, 87, 99. 

"paramita, 64, 80. 
vivara, 96. 

vivada-mula (six), 123. 
viveka, 46, 49. 

*ja, 46. 

"patipanna, 49. 
visa-rukkha (aim..), 110. 
vi-sabhaga, 61, 62. 

°to, 100. 
sampatta'gahl, 100n. 
visuddhi, 49. 

kankhaivitarana" 113, 114. 
citta", 2. 
ditthi", 2. 113. 
sila", 2. 
Visuddhimagga, 1. 4, 5, etc. 

(almost throughout), 

°to, 40. 
bhava", 27. 

°bhagiy a , 10, 50. 
vihimsa, 80. 

°uparati, 12. 
vihesa, 82. 

°san5a, 98. 
vlthi, 101, 102, 103. 

(three kinds), 101. 

"bhedato, 101-103. 

inano-dvara , 103. 
vlsatiya akarehi, 106. 
vihi (sim.), 104. 
vutthana, 57. 

vedana, 57, 97-98, 104, 121. 

(one hundred and eight), 98. 
°kaya, 114. 

veda-bahula, 122. 
Vedalla, 94. 
vematika, 9. 
Veyyakarana, 94. 
veri, 81. 
vesarajja, 80. 
(four), 65. 

Vessamitta, 73. 
Vehapphala, 53. 
votthabbana-citta, 102. 
Siksa-samuccaya, 76n, lOln. 
samyojana, 111; (three), 120. 
(ten), 111, 124. 

samvara, 4, 10, 11, 

indriya" (of nine ways), 12. 
catu", 11. 

sattappabheda", 11. 
°sfla, 4. 

Sakadagami, 3, 125, 127. 
sangaha. 49, 112. 
"to, 84, 100, 103, 112. 
khandha", ayatana", dhatu°,112. 
sankhepa", 49. 
sankhara, 72, 98-99, 104, 105, 107, 
114, 128. 
(thirty-two), 98. 
"arammana, 117. 
°upekkha, 52. 
"upekkha-Sana, US. 
kaya* 70, 128. 
"khandha, 107. 
citta , 71, 12S. 
°nimitta, 84. 
°pariccheda-naua, 116. 
sabba° samatha, 66. 

"ditthi, 110, (chief of heresies), 



"bhava-ditthi, 110. 
sankhata, 105, 12S. 
sankhitta, 108. 
"to, S2, 110. 
"sangaha, 49. 
Sangha, 44. 
"auussati, 38, G7. 
"kamnia, 14. 
saraka", 07. 
sanghati, 17. 
sacca, 108-128. 
"(adkitthana), 80u. 
"auulomika-Sana, 90, IIS. 
ariya". 95. 
catu°, 10S. 

°pariccheda, 3, 110-128. 
"paramita, 64, 80. 
Sanghadisesa, lln., 14. 
Saccasavhaya, 64. 
sacchi-katabbatthena, 110. 
sancicca, 9. 
Saiijlva, 127. 
Saiina, 45. 
(ten), 111. 
"kaya, 114. 
nfmatta", 54. 
uimitta, 62. 
patigha", 54. 

"patibimba, 45. 

patkavi", 56, 56n. 

viparlta", 56. 

vipallasa", 56. 

vipariyiisa', 9S. 

vihesa", 98. 
saiina-vedayita-nirodha, 77. 

"samapatti, 127. 
sati, 49, 53. 

anapana", 38-42. 

kayagata", 75-77. 

"thanani, 41. 

"parisuddki, 53. 
inarana", 41, 42. 
"nia, 52. 
salipatthana, 65. 

(four), 65, 66, 69, 71, 109, 111, 
sati-sanipajanfia, 28, 52. 
satta, 80, 84, 113. 

°avasa (nine), 111, 115, 118. 
sattakkhatu-parama, 120. 

(mudiudriya), 120 
Satta-suriya-sutta, 83. 
Sattha, 63. 

Satthu-pakkosana, 127. 
"kautaka, 56. 
"nirodka, 56. 
panaka". 88. 
saddha, 49, 89, 106. 
"carita, 41. 
"cariya, 34. 
sa-nidassana-sappatigha, 97. 
santa, 54. 
santapa, 6, corrections & 

santirana-citta, 102. 
santutthita, 2S. 
sandifthika, 67. 
sandijthi-paramasata, 123. 
sandhi, 105. 
"to, 105. 
phala-hetu", 105. 
bhava", 105. 
hetu-phala", 105. 
sapadanacarika, 16, 17, 18, 23. 
sa-pariyantato, 77. 
sapp.urisa, 79. 
sabbannuta-nana, 80. . 
sabhaga, 83. 

° vi-sabhaga to, 83. 
sabhava-rupa, 97. 
sabhava-lakkhana, 103. 



I.NUIiX 01'' 1»AU \VUll US 

saniatikkania, -39, 57. 
anga". 39, 57. 
aramniana", 39, 57. 
•to, 39. 
rupa", 39. 

sanna-vedayita", 39. 
samatlia, 71, 80, 111, 127. 
"pubbangaiua-vipassanfi , 121 . 
vipassaaa-pubbangama ° , 121 . 
"patipanna, 49. 
sainantato, GO, 61. 
°carita, 34. 
"cariya, 34. 
sainudhi, 1, 2, 3, 20-31, 49, SO, 
"antarayakara, 27. 
asauni*, 30. 
"anisamsa, 27. 
kiriya", 30. 
"khandha. 2. 14, 100. 
°ja, 51. 

(nanavidha), 28-31. 
uibbedba-bbagiya", 1. 
"pariceheda, 26-31. 
Mahakarnna", 29, 80. 
yamaka-patihariya, 29, 80. 
"sainbhara, 28. 
"smini paripuiakarino, 125. 
°betu (eight), 27-28. 
samapatti, 26, 79. 

amipnbba° (niue), 66. 
(dve), 121, 125-12S. 
paficanga", 29. 
samuccheda-marana, 72. 
samuftMnato, 96. 
samudaya ( = tanha), 64. 
sampajanfia, 52. 
sainpaticchana-citta, 101. 
sainpatta-visayaggahl, lOOn. 
saiupatti, 79, 80. 

sampasada, 51n. 
sampahamsana, 49. 
samphappalapa, 90. 

cakkbu °ja, etc., 97, 9S. 

(seven), 05, 00, 71. 
. sanibodhi, 3. 

'augaui (seveu), 03. 
sambodlii-fiana, 1. 
sainmati (or samniuti) 
"Sana, 93. 
"sacca, 110. 
sainbhara (samadhissa"), 28. 
sammappadhana, 10; °ui, 65. 

cattaro", 10, 66, 109. 
samma-ajlva, 2, 7, 109. 
sainnia-kamnianta, 2, 7, 109. 
sainma-ditthi, 2, 109. 
samnia-dhamma, 115. 
saninia-maggangani, 66. 
sanmia-manasikara. 79, 109. 
samma-vaca, 2, 109. 
sanmia-vayaina, 2, 7, 109. 
sanoma-saiikappa, 2. 109. 
samma-sati, 2, 109. 
sammasainadhi, 2, 109. 

paSca-Sanika", 30. 
Samma-sainbuddha, 81, 90. 
Sayanibhii, 62. 
sa-craeato, 115. 
sariiva, 44. 
salayat'ana, 104. 
Sauca-jataka, 64. 
sa-sambharika-upacfua, 49. 
sassata-ditthi, 110. 
sadbaraua-marana, 72. 
sallakkhana, 70. 
sakka (sini.), 104. 
samaSna-pbala, 66. 
Sariputta, 73, 96, 127. 

sali (sim.). 104. 
suvaka-slla, 7. 
sikkliati, 70. 
sikkhapada, 10, 11. 
Sigula-pita, 02. 

(vl. Singala-pita), 02u. 
siiattha, 5. 
sltalattha, 5. 
sluia-sambheda, 79. 
slla, 1, 1-15, 3. 

"antarayika, 6. 

"anussati, 38, 67. 

"anisamsa, 5. 

"khandha, 2, 14, 100. 
(nanavidba), 7-14. 

"pariccheda, 4-15. 

"paraniitfi 64, 80. 

"lakkhana, 4. 


"visnddhi, 14. 

"betu, 7. 
silabbata-paramasa, 120, 123, 124. 
sukba, 3, 48, 49, 61a., 119. 
(of five kinds), 47. 

"indriya, 97. 
nicca "vikara, 79. 

"pharanata, 30. 

"viharl, 52. 
sukkuiua-rupa, (eighteen), 100. 
simnata(a), 40, 128. 

"dkatu, 114. 
sufiuato (vimokkha), 122. 
suta-maya pafina, 92-. 
sutena, 41. 
Sutta, 1, 32. 
Suttanipata, 95, 120n. 
Sndassa, 120. 
SndassI, 120. 

"ilvasa (gods), 120. 

"avasa-bhumi, 54. 

.su-patipanna, 07. 
suppa, 44. 

"nimitta, 14. 

"sanfia, 41. 
Subhakinlia, 53. 
selcha-bhumi, 122. 
Susruta, 76u. 
su-sai.itliita, 81. 
Scllhi-.jutaka, 01. 
senasana, 36. 
seniha, 35, 41, 74, IMi. 
seyyidito, 30. 
sevana, 49. 
sota 86, SS, lOOn. 

"dasaka, 90. 
dibba". 80, 88. 

"dhatu. 88. 

"magga-nana, 119, 122. 

"phala, 120. 125. 

°magga, 121, 125. 
Sotapauna, 3, 120, 127. 
(of three kinds), 120. 
Sobhita, 89. 
somanassa, 53. 81. 

"indriya, 88, 97. 
sosanika, 10, 21, 23. 24. 

vyakhya, 34u, lOln, 112n. 
liata-vikkhittaka, 38. 61. 
Halidda-vasana-sutta, 82. 
kanabhagiya, 7, 9, 50. 

"alia, 7, 9. 
hani, 65. 

chaudassa", viriyassa". satiya" 
samadhissa", pannaya", 
vimuttiya", 65. 
hita-sukha, 82. 
hiri, 33. 
hiri-koplua, 13. 
huinhika, 47u. 



"to, 115. 
"pkala-naua, 94. 

samfulhissa , 27-28. 

slla", 7. 


hetu-paccaya, 95, 103-107, 113. 

"patibaddlia, 114. 

"pariggahe Sana, 114. 
uelu-phala-sandhi, 105. 
hetumhi nSuam, 94. 


accumulation, 95. 
acrobatic feats, GO 
ant, (siui.) 15. 
autidote, 41, 7S. 
an-phan, 09, 

Arhat, 3, 24, 48, 03, 120, 12o. 
unknown destiny of, 120. 
Arhatship, 120. 
Path to, 120. 
army, 48. . 

bag of fesces aud urme (siui.), to. 
bird, surrounded by fire (rim.), US. 
Blessed one, (seeBhagava), 64, 0G, 

103, 109, 126. 
blind (rim.) 
and lame, 113. 
"man (siui.), 2. 

man touching and feeling the 
elephant, 99. 
boat, crossing the floods (siui.), 119, 


reflection upon (thirteen ways), 

75 " rr - 
bones, three hundred. 76. 


newly married (sim.), 33. 

bubble (sim.) 74. 

Buddhist Literature (nine-fold) 

bull, able to carry a burden (sim. 

cart (sim.), 48. 
cart-driver (sim.), 32. 
carts, five hundred, 55. 
centipede, 74. 
child, young (sim.), 45. 
city, burning, 119. 
colour of mind or heart, 88-89. 
courtiers (sim.), 101-102. 

cow, mountain" (sim.), 51. 
craving (tanha), S4, 
deaf door-keeper (sim.), 101, 102. 
death, reflection upon (four 
kinds), 72 ; (eight ways) 73-74. 
Deliverance, 1 . 

Path of, 2. 
Dependent Origiuation (also sec 
Law. of Causation), 113, 111. 
(negative way), 114. 
disease of leprosy (sim.). 100. 
Divine Lye, G4. 
doctor (sim.), 32. 
doll, wooden, 84. 
double-tongued, 124. 
dragon, 74. 
dumb maid-servant (sim.), 101-102. 

ear, 100. 
heavenly" 88. 
natural" 88. 
earth (sim.), 107. 
Eightfold Path, 109. 

goad applied to, 115. 
without a good (sim.), 32, 41. 
execution, post of, 73 
executioner (sim.), 73. 
exertion, right , 87. 
eye, 100 
), (described), 96. 
divine 88. 
natural", 90. 
eye, single (sim.), 15. 
father (sim.), 32, 80. 
fatty things (sim.), 41. 
fire (sim.) 
heap of, 118. 
sparks of, 120. 
foam of water (sim.), 74. 



foetus, growth of, 70, 

Appendix A 1. 
food, disgusting nature of, 84. 
gardener, (sim.), 101, 102. 
goad (sim.), 32, 41. 

applied to an elephant, 115. 
guide, without a, 2. 
helmsman (sim.), 32. 
hot drink (sim.), 32, 41. 
image of Hie Buddha, 02. 
image, maker of (sim.), 100. 
artificial and scholastic, G3, 71, 

simple and natural, 11, 25u, 71, 
100, 109. 
iron, (red-hot) heateu and dipped 

into water, 120. 
jar, broken, with wine in it, So. 
king (sim.), sleeping, 101-102. 

wicked, 99. 
knife, 101, 102. 
lame and blind, 113. 
lamp.the flame of (sim.),96, 100,114. 

burning, 119. 
Law of Causation, 104, 113, 114. 

(also see Dependent Origination) 
lepros3', W0, 

light of the sun (sim.), 99. 
lightning, flash of, 11G. 
lip (upper part), 69, 70. 
uiau (sim.), 

bitten by a serpent but not 

using antidote, 78. 
eating poisoned food, 7S. 
frightful, carrying a sword, 118. 
muttering a sutta, 47. 
overcome by the heat, 12G. 
pondering over the meaning of 

a sutta, 47. 
poor, 15. 

possessed by spirits, S3, 
seeing a relative after a long 

time, etc. 81. 
un-iutelligeut, 117. 
wishing a bath but entering 

unclean water, 7S. 
with feet outside the threshold 
mango (fruit), 101, 102. 
master (sim.), 37. 

over kasinas and samadhis, 00. 
,, uimitta, 59. 
,, trances, 51-53. 
miraculous powers, 80-91. 
mirror (sim.), 89. 
moon (sim.), 73, 107. 
moth (sim.), 115. 
mother (sim.), 32, SO. 
mountain, 107. 
Xa-lo-tho, 120. 
name and form, S4. 
neutral person 78-79. 

shiu-to-lo, 72, (also see G2). 
ocean, 107. 
oily things (sim.), 41. 
parts (thirty-two), of the body 75, 

Path, Eightfold S4. 
perfection of samadhi, 125. 
person, surrounded by robbers.US. ' 
phyin-pa, IGu., 
physician (sim), 110. 

suffering from a disease, 78. 
poison (sim.), 37, 78; °ed food, 78. 
Po-li-phu-to, So. 
poor man (sim.), 15. 
pores of hair, ninety-nine thou- 
sand, 85 (also 76). 
preliminaries, 127. 



protracted similes, 101-102, 104. 

Przyluski, 124 n. 

puppet (sim.) painted, dressed up, 

worked by strings within, 84, 
Pure Abodes, 54. 
Right Path, G4. 
sailor (sim.), 15. 
Sau-Tsaug, 4G, 47, 49. 
saw (bah-aca) (sim.), 70, 78. 
seed 104, 107. 
seeing a person from distance 

(sim.) 47. 

man seizing a poisonous" 115, 
poisonous", 118 
Shiu-to-lo-nieh-ti-li G2, (also see 


penetration into truths, 119. 
slave (sim.), 37. 
soow (sim.), 107. 
son, only (sim.), 15. 
far and near, etc. 88 
human and superhuman, 88. 
of worms, 8S. 
space in the hollow of a well 

(sim.), 59. 
speck, smallest, changing, 116. 
sprout, 104, 107. 
spyi-bo-skyes, 73n. 
sticks (sim.), 96. 
shadows of, 90. 

stream, the flow of (sim.), 96. 
suffering, 119. 

cessation of, 119. 

insight into, 119. 

origin of, 119. 

Path leading to cessation of, 
sun (sim.), 73. 107, 119. 
taste, knowing of, 100. 
Ta-te-shi-kyu-phu, 62. 

former, 82.S8, 101. 

of the past, 82. 
teeth, thirty-two, 7G. 
thorn (sim.), 100. 
tip of the nose, attention to G9, 

Truths (four), 32, 84, 108-28. 
Uushakable Happy Stale, 120. 
vase, painted but full of impurity, 

well, in a mountain-forest, 125. 
water, flowing to a lower level 

(aim.), 99. 
Wheel of the Law, GG. 
wheel, the turning of (sim.), 100. 
wiue in a leakiug pot, 85. 
Woman's body to a man, 61, 62. 
wooden doll (sim.), 84. 
worms, in human body, 7G, 

Appendix A 2. 
worms, sounds of, 88. 
Yellow-garment-sutta, 82. 

Corrections and Additions 




Line For 

2 Maddhyamaka 

8 Abhayagirivikara 

3 hte- 
7 the first Chinese character 

14 nirodha-sam-dpatthi 

9 kasinas 

1 from the _,,,» „„ 

bottom: Add to note 13: "Cf . Vis. XVII.7S: anna- 
maiinupatthavibhakam ti-dandaJ;am 
viya; also see XVII.196, XVIII.32." 













11 Vimuttimagga 3 

foot-note 1 p. not quoted 

foot-note 8 79 
foot-note 4 

foot-note 1 xxxix-xi 



not quoted 

Add *"58". 


xliii 13 

Add a new note on Petaka: "Mrs. C.P. 
RhyB Davids also identifies Petaka with 
Petakopadesa as can be seen from her 
edition of the Vis. (P.T.S.), 1.141, note 
3. It is also interesting to note what 
Gandhavamsa says on p. 05 : Petakopa- 
desassa tlkam Udumbara-namacariyo 




11 Akanittha 

5 Panfia 

8 lo. 

6 from the 

bottom Safina, 

2 contact 

4 from the 

bottom Vijfiapti 



















6 from the 




1 fiom the 




4 from the 

8 from the 

11 from the 

foot-note 1 

To note 2, add: For santdpa as a Mesa 
and for other kilesas corresponding to 
several in this list, see respectively pp. 
223 and 222-224 of Yamakami Sogen's 
'Systems of Buddhistic Thought' (1912). 

the first Chinese 

character J&3. 

-paticchadunttham -paticchddanattham 

note 2 







note 4 


In note 2. add 'XXIII. 14.' 


lid appna ? 

patilck ulasaiiiia 

10 from the 


Add : "Petaka p. 178 (p. 200 of the prin- 
ted edition) has, however, the follow- 
ing passage : Kdmaccliandassa rtek- 
khamma-vitakko patipakkho, bya- 
pddassa abydpdda-vitakko patipak- 
kho, tinnam nivarandnam avihimsd- 
vitakko patipakkho." 

Brahma gods Brahma gods 

Ekangavippahianam E/canga v ippa hin am 








Line For Read 

12 satipdrisudhim satipdrisvddhim 

20 Catutthjjhanddi- Catiittlwjjlidnddi- 

foot-note2 Add: "Abhidharmakosavyakbya edited 
by Wogihara, vol. i.162: Netrlpaiam 
iti Sistra-nama Sthaviropaguptasya." 

13 from the 

bottom sammd maggangdni 

6 from the 

bottom assatissmi 





sa in ma-ma gga n gdni 


2 from the 

bottom Add: "Also see Mandhatu Jataka, Ja. 
ii. 310-14." 

6 patghd- 

19 adhitthana 

9 apacyd 

4 from the 

bottom bh&vanS-tam- 

12 from the 

bottom Samutthaiito 

5 from the 

bottom kamviusamvttdna 






l:a lnviasatnutthdnd 

13 the first Chinese 

character WL 

15 from the 

bottom phottohabba- saiind photthabba-scnna 

14 from the 

bottom cakkhu-sdmphassajd cakkhu-samphassaja 

6 from the 

bottom Vacantthato 

n the XIV. 133-184 in XIV. 133-184 

2 from the 

bottom Lakkhanato Lakkhanato 









Line l r <»' 




vimutti kkhandho 



5 from the 


bottom pajanai 


11 from the 





6 from the 

bottom maccariyena 



1 from the 

ke ci 



7 -kammapatha 




second Chinese charac 



4 from the 

bottom "Le Conceile... 

'Le Coucile... 




fourth ,, ,, 



13 ditthadhmmasuklia 




dvdra-pidapana. . . 

dvdra-pidahana. . . 

127 . 

7 along will 

along with 






14 chapter of (111.74) of 

chapter (111.74) of 


7 from the 


su-niiatatl liato 


23 part of the 

part in the 





p. a. 


25-26 aud nnatavindriya 

and annatuvindniya 


15-16 Add a note on the parable of blind and lame man : 


Brahmasutra, II. 2. 7 and l5aukara"s Bhasya 

on it; 

also Sankhyakarika, 21 

Macdonell's 'India's 


p. 152 where he says that the parable was 


in China in the second 

century B.C." 


1 from the 





12 from the 


















6 from the 












10 from the